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US History - 4.3 - Struggling Toward Saratoga

USH 4.3
by

McDaris

on 13 September 2013

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Transcript of US History - 4.3 - Struggling Toward Saratoga

1765
British Parliament passes Stamp Act
1770
1775
1780
Colonial women organize spinning bees to protest British taxes on textiles
Colonists stage the Boston Tea Party
Parliment passes Intolerable Acts
First Continental Congress convenes
Fighting erupts at Lexington and Concord
Second Continental Congress convenes
Colonists and British wage the Battle of Bunker Hill
Washington crosses the Delaware
Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense
Colonist declare independence
Colonists' victory at Saratoga marks a turning point in the war
One American's Story
Struggling Toward Saratoga
After the colonists had declared independence, few people thought the rebellion
would last. A divided colonial population of about two and a half million people
faced a nation of 10 million that was backed by a worldwide empire.




Albigense Waldo worked as a surgeon at Valley Forge outside Philadelphia,
which served as the site of the Continental Army’s camp during the winter of
1777–1778. While British troops occupied Philadelphia and found quarters inside
warm homes, the underclothed and under fed Patriots huddled in makeshift huts
in the freezing, snow-covered Pennsylvania woods. Waldo, who wrote of his stay
at Valley Forge, reported on what was a common sight at the camp.




A PERSONAL VOICE ALBIGENSE WALDO
“ Here comes a bowl of beef soup full of dead leaves and dirt. There comes a soldier. His bare feet are seen through his worn-out shoes—his legs nearly naked
from the tattered remains of an only pair of stockings—his Breeches [trousers]
are not sufficient to cover his nakedness—his Shirt hanging in Strings—his hair
disheveled—his face meager.”—quoted in Valley Forge, the Making of an Army




The ordeal at Valley Forge marked a low point for General Washington’s troops,
but even as it occurred, the Americans’ hopes of winning began to improve.
1767
1773
1774
1776
1777
Ch 4 Section 3 Struggling Toward Saratoga
The War Moves to the Middle States

British retreat (move back from)
 Boston by
March 1776
British decide to stop rebellion by isolating New England
32,000 British soldiers and Hessians take New York,
summer 1776
Washington rallied
23,000
men to New York’s defense
Many of Washington’s recruits killed
Under paid recruits
Poor equipment
Continental Army loses; several problems result:
Pushed into Pennsylvania
Fewer than
8,000
men remain
Enlistment terms were expiring (ending)

A 
desperate
 victory
 is
 needed 
to

keep 
troops
 from 
leaving
Christmas 1776
Valley Forge: The site of the Continental Army’s camp outside of Philadelphia during the winter of 1777-1778
(German Mercenaries)
1. Washington has a brilliant 
plan!
2. Troops cross back over Delaware River on
Christmas Eve, 1776 and march toward Trenton, NJ
(its very cold).
3. Troops will attack unsuspecting, drunk Hessians.
4. It works! Subsequent (following) victory at
Princeton, NJ 10 days later. Morale is high for the
Continental Army
THE BATTLE OF TRENTON
Defeat in New York
THE FIGHT FOR PHILADELPHIA


Gen. William Howe beats Washington at Brandywine, PA, summer 1777
Howe takes U.S. capitol, Philadelphia; Continental Congress flee

Gen. John Burgoyne leads British, allies south from Canada
Burgoyne loses repeatedly to Continental Army, militia
Surrounded at Saratoga, Burgoyne surrenders to Gen. Horatio Gates
Victory at Saratoga
1778
A PERSONAL VOICE GEORGE WASHINGTON
“ To see men without Clothes to cover their nakedness, without Blankets to lay on, without Shoes, by which their Marches
might be traced by the blood of their feet, and almost as often
without Provision . . . is a mark of patience and obedience
which in my opinion can scarcely be paralleled.”
—quoted in Ordeal at Valley Forge
Since 1776, French secretly send weapons to Americans
French recognize American independence, sign treaty, February 1778
France agrees no peace until Britain recognizes U.S. independence
Of 10,000 soldiers, more than
2,000 die of cold and hunger
Colonial Life During the Revolution

Military Strengths
and Weaknesses


UNITED STATES
Strengths
• familiarity of
home ground
• leadership
of George
Washington and
other officers
• inspiring cause of
the independence
Weaknesses
• most soldiers
untrained and
undisciplined
• shortage of food
and ammunition
• inferior navy
• no central
government to
enforce war time
policies
GREAT BRITAIN
Strengths
• strong, well trained army
and navy
• strong central
government with
available funds
• support of colonial Loyalists and
Native Americans

Weaknesses
• large distance
separating Britain
from battlefields
• troops unfamiliar
with terrain
• weak military
leaders
• sympathy of
certain British
politicans for the
American cause
The Revolutionary War touched the life of every American, not just the men on the battlefield.

Financing the War

To get money, Congress sells bonds to investors, foreign governments
Prints paper money (Continentals), causes
inflation
(rising prices)
Few U.S. munitions factories; must run arms through naval blockade
Some officials engage in
profiteering
, sell scarce goods for profit
Robert Morris, Haym Solomon use own credit to raise money, pay army
Civilians at War
While husbands fight, women manage homes, businesses
Many women go with troops to wash, cook, mend; some fight
Thousands of African-American slaves escape to cities, frontier
About 5,000 African Americans serve in Continental Army
Most Native Americans stay out of the conflict
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