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Outliers Chapter 4

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Claire Perliss

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of Outliers Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Gladwell's Appeals of Pathos
"It is a heartbreaking story" (p.95. par. 4)
He tells the story of Chris Langan, a scholar who "for most of his adult life [lived] in intellectual isolation" (p 96 par 1)
Makes the audience sympathize with Langan and feel jealous of the wealthy children for being given greater chances of success
How Does Gladwell Convey His Ethos
Uses facts to present an objective point of view
"If your ideas are reasonable, your sources are reliable, and your language appropriate to the project, you will suggest to academic readers that you're someone whose ideas might deserve attention"(EaA. 45)
He presents reasonable arguments and sources so people want to believe what he says.
He quotes primary sources rather than paraphrasing, making things up, or settling for unreliable sources.
Summary and Purpose
Part 1:
Chris Langan was very poor growing up
Got a scholarships to Reed College.
He lost his scholarship, because of his mom not filling out forms
Enrolled in Montana State University,
Class times became a problem, but school was unwilling to help him
Part 2:
Robert Oppenheimer was brilliant, and he came from a wealthy family.
Gladwell believes that because he was wealthy he has the tools and skills to be successful and if faced with the same circumstances there would have been a different outcome.
Part 3:
Sociologist Annette Lareau did a study following families of 12 third graders.
She found that there were only two parenting "philosophies".
Based off of the financial status of the families, Gladwell concludes that wealthier families have more of a cultural advantage.
Part 4:
Langan grew up distrusting authority and being independent.
He never had anyone tell him to speak up for himself.
Part 5:
Lewis Terman's termites are now adults.
The top group were mainly from upper to middle class families.
The lower 150 were from the lower class.
Part 6:
Langan had the intelligence but not the will power.
He struggled through everyday life because he felt like an outsider.

Intended Audience
What facts, statistics/expert opinion does Gladwell use to support his point? (Logos)
Chris Langan
his education experience, life experience (poor)
Biography of Oppenheimer
his education experience, life experience (wealthy)
Leslie Groves
how smart Oppenheimer was (Manhattan Project)
Annette Lareau
visited different class families and studied the environment of it
Fallacies in Media
1. Do you feel that being born into an upper class family and experiencing more culture at a young age will cause you to be more successful in life?
2. Why or why not?
Slippery- slope (pathos)
Overly emotional (pathos)
Non sequitur (logos)
Ad hominem (ethos)
The information in this chapter could appeal to parents who want to know how their children can become successful or anyone interested in the patterns of successful people.
Discussion Question
"The Ultimate Anti-Gay Marriage Ad." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2014
Gladwell, Malcolm. "Chapter 4." Outliers: The Story of Success. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 91-116. Print.
Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Ruszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything's an Argument: With Readings. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2013. Print.
"Google Image Result for." Google Image Result for. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

Arguments in Chapter 4
Practical intelligence is learned, but you are born with analytical knowledge.
Oppenheimer had an advantage because he was raised in a wealthy family.
You get different skills from your parents. For example, a boy named Alex grew up with parents who encouraged him to always ask questions, but lower-class children were taught to be quiet and submissive, and make less eye contact.
Do any of Gladwell's claims apply to your own life, your school, your family, your community? Explain

Some people can't afford proper education
Is Gladwell's Evidence Convincing?
Are his Sources Credible? Why or Why not?
What Evidence do you Accept? What do you Doubt?
Do you question any of Gladwell's Conclusions Based on his Evidence?
Fallacies in Gladwell's Argument
Despite the fallacies in his argument, he presents enough evidence and credible sources which make his evidence convincing
His evidence appeals to Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
we hear Chris Langans story
Chris' Ethos are strong because he actually experienced unfair disadvantages of underprivileged children first-hand
Chris' story is very sad which makes us easily convinced of a point due to heavy emotions
He sites many reliable sources (as shown in the next slide)
Stacking the Deck
Gladwell presents only his idea
gives no examples of any poor people who became successful or rich people who did not
Either- Or tactic
Gladwell argues that you are either rich and successful or you are poor and go nowhere in life
They are credible because......
Chris Langan: talked about his own experiences, no one knows him better than himself
Oppenheimer's biography: People would have had to do research on him in order to write about him
Leslie Groves: He was in charge of the Manhattan Project
Annette Lareau: She was a sociologist, who researches social classes impact life chances for a living
Malcolm Gladwell
Picture Citations
"Google Image Result for." Google Image Result for. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

I accept...
That richer kids sometimes have a cultural advantage
That learning how to speak up and question authority can be useful
I doubt...
That kids growing up in poorer families don't have some sort of advantage
Intended Audience
Gladwell gave examples of how people who grew up poor turned out less successful than those who had the same intellectual level, but grew up wealthier. However, there are still many successful people who started their lives out poor, but became successful.
Full transcript