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AQA A Psychology, Unit 1 - Memory, Attachment & Research Methods
Transcript of AQA A Psychology, Unit 1 - Memory, Attachment & Research Methods
-The accuracy of these testimonies can be greatly affected by the events that occur afterwards - Loftus (1992) called this "misinformation acceptance" - where people accept misleading information after an event and absorb it into their own memory.
-A leading question is phrased in such a way to prompt a particular type of answer. "Did you see a bicycle?" is a straightforward yes/no question, however "what colour was the bicycle?" implies that there was a bicycle there, thus is a misleading question - Says all behaviours (including attachment) are learned -Says that all behaviours (including Attachment) are innate Memory, Attachment & Research Methods
By Joshua Clark Sensory Store
-Very Limited Capacity
-Very Limited Duration
-Huge Amount Of Decay
-Tactile Encoding Short Term Memory
-Lots Of Decay
-Acoustically Encoded Long Term Memory
-Semantic Encoding Attention Elaborate Rehearsal Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal Loop -Created By Atkin and Shiffrin (1968)
-Researchers Area Of Research Researcher Sensory Store Sperling (1960) Duration Peterson & Peterson (1959) Capacity Jacobs (1887)
Miller (1956) Encoding Conrad (1964) Short Term Memory Long Term Memory Duration Bahrick et al. (1975) Encoding Baddeley (1966) Working Memory Model Central Executive Phonological Loop -Monitors and Corrects Mistakes
-Inhibits Irrelevant Information
-Sets task goals Visuospatial Sketchpad 2 Slave Systems -Holds verbal information in a speech based form.
-Consists of 2 parts:
The Phonological Store (The Inner Ear) - which decays after about 2 seconds, unless rehearsed by the Articulatory Control System
Articulatory Control System (The Inner Voice) - which also decays after about 2 seconds, unless rehearsed / repeated vocally. -Holds visual and spatial information
-Stores and manipulates visual information, input from the eyes or LTM -By Baddeley & Hitch Evaluation Strengths Of the Working Memory Model: Weaknesses Of the Working Memory Model: - It is a much more plausible model than the multi-store model because it explains Short Term Memory in terms of both temporary storage and active processing.
- It is possible to apply the model to previous research eg the digit span study.
-The working memory model attempts to explain how the memory functions rather than how it simply "stores" information. - Working models do not offer a complete understanding of how memory works. The exact role of the Central Executive remains slightly unclear - the model is vague in explaining it.
- 'Berz' criticised the model for failing to account for musical memory because we are able to listen to instrumental music without impairing performance on other acoustic tasks. Evaluation Strengths Of the Multi-Store Model: Weaknesses Of the Multi-Store Model: -The Multi-Store model has made an important contribution to memory research. The information-processing approach has enabled psychologists to construct testable models of memory and provided the foundation for later important work
-There is plenty of evidence to support the distinction of a difference between short-term, temporary, limited-capacity store and a more robust and permanent long-term memory. Case studies support this (provides evidence that there are separate stores which function independently e.g. KF -The Model is oversimplified - it doesn't reflect the complexity of human memory. For example, it doesn't take into account how many things we have to remember and that some things are easier to remember than others because they're more interesting / funny etc.
- Most of the supporting evidence comes from artificial, laboratory studies, which might not reflect how memory works in real life situations. Area Of Research Researcher Phonological Loop Thomson & Buchanan (1975) Articulatory Loop Baddeley et al. (1975) Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Shepard and Feng (1972)
Baddeley, Grant, Wright & Thomson (1973) Central Executive Baddeley (1999) Baddeley (1999) - Investigated "selective attention" in central executive. Conclusion - tasks became more difficult when participants were competing for the same central executive resources. Baddeley, Grant, Wright and Thomson (1973) - investigated the visuo-spatial sketchpad. Conclusion - The two tasks the participants were asked to do were competing for the same, limited resources of the visuo-spatial sketchpad. Shepard and Feng (1972). Conclusion - people are likely to find it difficult to do two tasks simultaneously if they both require the services of the visuo-spatial sketchpad. Baddeley et al. (1975) - investigated the "word length effect" with articulatory suppression (saying lalalalala). Conclusion - A verbal rehearsal system is needed for the advantage of short words over long words. If the articulatory system is suppressed, the words are likely processed in the central executive. Thomson and Buchanan (1975) - investigated the phonological loop. Conclusion - the capacity of the loop is determined by the length of time it takes to say words rather than the number of items - the time is estimated to be 1.5 seconds. Area Of Research Researcher Post-event information and leading questions Loftus (1975) - some participants did absorb the false information into their memory
Loftus and Zanni (1975) - Misleading information caused people to believe there was a broken headlight
Loftus and Palmer (1974) - The adjectives used in questions is very important as it can distort recall Anxiety And EWT Age And EWT Loftus and Burns (1982) - The participants who watched the disturbing film had a distorted memory in the events leading up to the crime
Loftus (1979) - Weapon Effect - The anxiety of seeing the weapon made the participants not recognise the face so well. Poole - Young Children are poor at source monitoring
Yarmey (1984) - Elerly participants failed to mention key facts about attacker, whereas younger adults did not. The Cognitive Interview The Cognitive Interview Recall in reverse order Context Reinstatement Report Everything Recall from a
changed perspective -Mentally Reinstate the context of the target event
-Recall the scene, the weather, what you were thinking and feeling at the time, the preceding events etc. -Report every detail you can recall, even if it seems trivial.
-"tell me what you saw"
-"tell me what you heard"
-"tell me what you smelt" etc. -Try to describe the episode as it would have been seen from different viewpoints, not just your own -Report the episode in several different temporal orders, moving backwards and forwards in time Research -Geiselman et al. (1985) found that the cognitive interview was more effective than normal police interviews and police interviews under hypnosis
-Fisher et al. found that cognitive interviews are much more effective than normal police interviews in a real life setting in Miami, as they increased the amount of information given
-Geiselman (1999) found that the cognitive interview was not very successful when questioning young children - this is probably because the instructions are difficult to understand Memory Improvement Acronym - to create an acronym, take the first letters of the items you are trying to remember, and make a new word out of them. For example:
Time to call 999
Acrostic - an acrostic is similar to an acronym, however once you have the letters, you make a sentence using them. For example, to remember the colours of the rainbow:
Vain Data analysis and presentation Quantitative Data - including graphs, scattergrams and tables
Analysis and interpretation of quantitative data. Measures of central tendency including median, mean and mode.
Measures of dispersion including ranges and standard deviation
Analysis and interpretation of correlation data. Positive and negative correlations and the interpretation of correlation coefficients
Presentation of qualitative data
Processes involved in content analysis Laboratory Experiments - Artificial environment with tight controls over variables.
Field Experiments - Natural environment, with independent variable manipulated by researchers
Natural Experiments - Natural environment, with independent variable NOT manipulated/changed
Correlations - how strongly two or more variables are related to each other.
Questionnaires - a set of questions- can be yes/no questions or open questions
Interviews - Interviews are face-to-face conversations
Case Study - Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community
Aims - the aim of a study - usually starts with "To Investigate..."
Directional Hypotheses - a hypothesis with a specific prediction
Non-directional Hypothesis - a hypothesis without a specific prediction
Independent Groups - Testing separate groups of people, each group is tested in a different condition
Repeated Measures - Testing the same group of people in different conditions, the same people are used repeatedly.
Matched Pairs - Testing separate groups of people - each member of one group is same age, sex, or social background as a member of the other group.
Independent Variable - The variable that is changed / investigated. Has a direct effect on the Dependent
Dependent Variable - The variable that is measured
Extraneous Variables - things that could affect the study for example individual differences
Reliability - the consistency of a measure
Validity - the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure
Ethics Code - a set of rules that researchers must stick to to ensure no psychological harm occurs to
Demand Characteristics - when a participant knows what the aim of the study is, they can
subconsciously change their characteristics to fit into or reject the hypothesis A reciprocated emotional bond between two people that endures over time A person's power to remember things Classical Conditioning (learning through association) Operant Conditioning
(learning through reinforcement) -This is about automatic responses (pleasure in this case) to a stimulus (food in this case).
-Food is an unconditioned stimulus (babies' response of pleasure is automatic).
-The carer brings the food, babies learn to respond to the carer by associating them with the food.
-Food = unconditioned. Pleasure = unconditioned response
-Carer = neutral stimulus (initially gets no response)
-Food is associated with carer
Mother - conditioned stimulus. Pleasure = conditioned response -Baby cries in response to hunger
-Crying produces a reward (positive reinforcement) because they are fed and cuddled. The baby is likely to repeat this behaviour
-The sound of the baby is uncomfortable to the caregiver, who will attempt to console by feeding or cuddling the baby - this is Negative reinforcement for the carer if the baby settles down and stops crying as it takes away a negative/unpleasant situation. The carer is likely to repeat this behaviour next time the baby cries. Evaluation In Schaffer and Emerson's 1964 study, the first attachment by 39% of babies was not to the person who carried out physical care such as feeding and caring, they were more likely to be formed to those who are sensitive and rewarding to the baby in terms of playing with it
Harlow and Harlow showed that monkeys reared in isolation preferred to cling to a model that was comfy, rather than one which had milk. This shows that there is much more to Attachment than feeding and rewards. Babies posses innate behaviours (called social releasers) such as crying and smiling, which they know will attract the attention of their primary caregiver Babies have one main attachment, usually to their mother / primary caregiver - "Monotropy" "Internal Working Model" is how a baby sees itself - how lovable it is, how trustworthy it thinks it's caregiver is, and how their relationship works. "The Sensitive Period" is the first three years of a babies' life. Bowlby's theory says that unless a baby makes the right attachments in this period, it's relationships later on in life are likely to be affected Evaluation Hazan and Shaver (1987) found that there is a strong correlation between the relationships a baby makes in it's first three years (sensitive period) and the relationships it makes later on in life - supporting Bowlby's continuity Hypothesis
However, Zimmerman et al. (2000) found that there are other more important factors in determining an adolescent's relationships, such as parental divource
The Glasgow study found that it was the "norm" for babies to develop more than one "key attachment" - contradicting Bowlby's "Monotropy" theory. Developmental Psychology Types Of Attachment: Type A -
Insecure Avoidant (avoids Closeness) -
Did not use mother as safe base
Was slightly distressed when mother left
Did not seek comfort when reunited
Rejected stranger's attempt to comfort
Type B -
Used mother as safe base
Happy to explore room when mother was there
Distressed when mother left
Joy at reunion, but settled quickly
Wary of stranger Type C -
Insecure Resistant (or ambivalent) -
Fussy and wary even when mother was there
VERY upset when mother left
Simultenously sought yet rejected mother's comfort at reunion (conflicting emotions)
Alternated between seeking closeness and wanting distance The Strange Situation - Ainsworth 1970 1) Mother and infant enter a room, unfamiliar to them both. Mother sits in one of the two chairs and reads a magazine. Child is placed on the floor, and is free to explore the toys
2)After about three minutes, a stranger enters, sits on the other chair and talks to the mother
3)The stranger approaches the infant, and attempts to interact and play with them
4) Mother leaves the room so the infant is alone with the stranger. The stranger comforts the baby if they're upset and offers to play with them
5) After around three minutes the mother returns and the stranger leaves
6) Three minutes later the mother departs again leaving the baby alone in the room
7) The stranger re-enters and offers to comfort and play with the baby
8) Mother returns and the stranger leaves Methodological Issues:
Some critics have argued that Ainsworth's research lacks validity because of the strange and unfamiliar nature of the playroom, which was not the child's home - however it can also be argued that the situatlion itself is similar to being left with a babysitter or at a playgroup or nursery, suggesting that the method may provide a valid mesaure of the child's response to separations.
Mothers may have responded to demand characteristics - for example they may have paid more attention to their child than they normally do - this could have a large impact on the results The Same study was conducted all around the world - and each country had different amounts of each attachment type. For example, Sweden had the highest amount of secure infants (74.5%), and China had the lowest (50%) Separation, Privation and
Instututionalisation A securely attached child (aroud 7/8 months old) is likely to respond to separation from their caregiver in these ways:
-Protest - Screaming, Crying and protests angrily when parent leaves. They are likely to try and cling to the parents and may struggle to escape from others who pick them up
-Despair - after a while, the protest will subside, and they will seem calmer although still upset. The child is more likely to refuse others' atempts to comfort them and they may appear to be withdrawn and uninterested in anything
-Detachment - if the separation continues the chld may begin to engage with other people again although they may still be wary. They are likely to reject the caregiver when they return and show signs of anger Area Of Study Method Appropriate Study Key Finding Robertson & Robertson Separation Privation Instututionalisation / Privation Observational / Case Study Koluchova - Czech boys Case Study Case Study Genie Skuse - sisters Case Study Rutter - Romanian Orphans Tizard & Hodges - Children adopted from institutions or returned to family Natural Experiment Natural Experiment Short-term effects - PDD
Long-term effects - disruption to attachment bond Recovery from privation possible Recovery from privation questionable Individual differences in recovery Effects of institutionalisation - disinhibited attachment.
Factors affecting recovery such as age of adoption, quality of care, quality of adoptive home etc.