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LTE

Long Term Evolution is a wireless broadband technology designed to support roaming Internet access. Because LTE offers significant improvements over older cellular communication standards, some refer to it as a 4G.
by

Michael Bacani

on 10 October 2014

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Transcript of LTE

LTE What is LTE? To most, it is a faster network technology. To network operators around the world it is a way to simplify their infrastructures to reduce costs while improving the quality of their offerings to subscribers.

In the end it is Long Term Evolution of the Mobile Telecommunications Systems. Basic Overview of Latency Latency is the amount of time it takes for the host server to receive and process a request for a page. LTE offers high speeds and low latencies over long distances. The amount of latency depends largely on how far away the user is from the server. 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) A collaboration between telecommunications organizations.

Created to unite the standards for mobile communication by creating the 3G specification. Mike Bacani | Chuck Benger | Rick Blais | Sean Gannon | Sanjay Master 1G (Analog) Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) - Late 1970's
First Mobile Phone - Motorola DynaTAC 8000x
- Over a foot long
- Weighted 28 ounces
- Sold at $3,995 ($9,000 present day value) 2G (GSM Standard) Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
- Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
Interim Standard 95 (IS-95, Brand name cmdaOne)
- Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Data transmissions were now digital and encrypted
SMS capable
First generation of mobile phones were now dubbed 1G 2.5G (GPRS) General packet radio service (GPRS)
- Part of the GSM System
- Implements packet-switched domain
- Best effort service
CDMA2000 1X (1xRTT)
-Part of the IS-95 System
- Quality of Service

Average user throughput of 80-100 kbit/s
WAP, SMS & MMS Capable 2.75G (EDGE) Evolved EDGE
- Reduced latency
- 1 Mbit/s speeds 3G Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS)
- Tripled the capacity and performance of the GPRS standard
- 8bit encoding
- Video/Audio Streaming Specification Groups Radio Access Network (RAN)
Service and System Aspects (SA)GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN)
Core Network and Terminals (CT) Long Term Evolution CONCLUSION Wireless broadband technology designed to support roaming Internet access via cell phones and handheld devices. Because LTE offers significant improvements over older cellular communications standards.

LTE service is only available in limited geographic areas, but telecommunications providers have been actively expanding their LTE services. 6 billion 3GPP subscriptions worldwide
1.2 billion HSPA-LTE mobile broadband subscriptions.
506 commercial networks in 188 countries.
68.3 million LTE subscriptions.
151 commercial LTE networks in 67 countries. LTE Statistics Work Cited "3GPP." 3GPP. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.3gpp.org/>.

"Latency 101: What is latency and why is it such a big deal?." Web Performance Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.webperformancetoday.com/2012/04/02/latency-101-what-is-latency-and-why-is-it-such-a-big-deal/>.

"What Is LTE (Long Term Evolution) for Wireless Networking?." Networking - Computer and Wireless Networking Basics - Home Networks Tutorials. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://compnetworking.about.com/od/cellularinternetaccess/g/lte-broadband.htm>.

"What Is LTE (Long Term Evolution) for Wireless Networking?." Networking - Computer and Wireless Networking Basics - Home Networks Tutorials. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://compnetworking.about.com/od/cellularinternetaccess/g/lte-broadband.htm>.

Gompa, Neal. "What is LTE? | ExtremeTech." Latest Technology News | Tech Blog | ExtremeTech. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.extremetech.com/mobile/110711-what-is-lte>.

"LTE, Long Term Evolution, Technology, 4G Americas." 4G Americas. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.4gamericas.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page&sectionid=249>. Future of LTE Contrary to most peoples belief LTE at it's current stage is not always considered 4G

It is really more like "pre-4G" or "3G+." Real "4G", as defined by the International Telecommunications Union, does not exist.

The ITU began allowing carriers to market these technologies as 4G in December 2010 stating that any technology that is a significant advancement to the 3G standard can be called 4G Future of LTE LTE advanced, the next generation of LTE, passes the ITU's definition of 4G and could be released sometime in 2014.


download speeds of up to 3 Gbps
upload speed of op to 1.5 Gbps, higher spectral efficiency
increased number of simultaneously active subscribers
improved performance at cell edges. This Technology hopes to provide: Technical Explanation Utilizes two different radio transmission Downlink and Uplink. upload 75Mbps 20mhz Bandwidth Download 150Mbps Cat4 MIMO 2X2, 20MHz Bandwidth
Download 300Mbps Cat5 MIMO 4X4, 20MHz bandwidth Downlink Uses OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
Unlike CDMA and TDMA, OFDMA uses MIMO (Multiple In Multiple Out)
Downside of OFDMA is that it cause high peak to average power ratios. Uplink Utilizes SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) to compensate for the high peak to power ratios that OFDMA causes. Coverage & Handover Basic Coverage on the LTE network is 5-100km with slight degradation after 30km.
Handover occurs when a end device is about to leave one enodeB (LTE tower) range and enter another. 3G Evolved EDGE
-Reduced latency
-1Mbit/s speeds Development and Deployment 12 Major Releases
Reduce complexity
Maximize compatibility
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