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Javelin Biomechanics

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Bri Bellerby

on 13 June 2016

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Transcript of Javelin Biomechanics

Force
The amount of force being transferred into the throw, depends of the amount of force that is built up in during the run up and swing of the arm and upper body.
A javelin throw has newton’s three laws of force applying to the overall technique needed to release and allow the javelin to travel a distance.
Newton’s first law states that without the external influence our body has upon the javelin stick, the javelin itself would stay in a state of uniform motion. The second law underlines that the javelin will only travel as far as the amount of force applied to it allows. It will also travel in the same direction that the force way applied onto the javelin (pushing it forward, traveling at the appropriate angle). Newton’s third law relates to the recovery section of the javelin throw – when the force built in the body has been transferred into the javelin, the opposite reaction is happening onto the athlete and a pull throw effect is made.
Take off
Overall release of Javelin - Self Performance video
Javelin Biomechanics
Analysis on performance
Biomechanics - What it means
Principles used to assess technique in the javelin throw:
Force
Levers
Projectile motion
Torque
Biomechanics is the sport science field that applies the laws of mechanics and physics to human performance, in order to gain a greater understanding of performance in athletic events through modelling, simulation and measurement (Wood, 2010).
“The East Germans first used biomechanics. This meant that rather than guessing about technique and form, they could apply changes to athletic performance based on science.” - Bill Toomey
Biomechanics
Diagram shows left handed thrower
Javelin runway
Javelin was first practiced in Ancient Greece and incorporated into the Olympic Games in 708BC as part of the pentathlon. It has been part of the modern Olympic Games program since 1908 for men, and 1932 for women (Javelin Throw, n.d.).
History of the Javelin throw
Foul line
Grip is behind body
Elbow is high
45 degrees
Tip must strike the ground first for the throw to be recorded
Analysis of athlete
Elbow is not raised
Grip is beside face and not above the hairline
Hand laying flimsy by side, not building up enough momentum
Arm's not fully extended
Appropriate release angle
roughly 36 degrees
Release angle is too large
Drill
Angle of release drill
- works on improving technique and appropriate angle used to cover the most distance
- Wasn't able to properly get the video of the drill onto the slide; URL of the technique:
Torque
Angle of release depicts the best release point to achieve maximal distance in the throw
- It will stay in flight until it has lost it's initial inertia and the Earth's gravitational force acts upon it
Projectile Motion
Once the javelin has been release from the athletes grip, due to the laws of physics, it’s projected in a relatively straight line until the earth’s gravitational pull acts upon it (What is Projectile motion?, 2016).
Levers
. Going through the motions for the release of the javelin it is easy to establish which sections of the elbow acts as the fulcrum, the input force and output force. The elbow acts as the fulcrum, the arm and upper torso act as the input force – transferring the required amount of force necessary for the object to move, and the javelin as the output force – where the transfer of force has been relocated (What levers does your body use?, 2007).
References
Davies, D. (2014, July 31). Science of the spear: biomechanics of a javelin throw. Retrieved from The Conversation: http://theconversation.com/science-of-the-spear-biomechanics-of-a-javelin-throw-29782
Biomechanics Quotes. (n.d.). Retrieved from Quotes Gram: http://quotesgram.com/biomechanics-quotes/
Force. (n.d.). Retrieved from Biomechanics: http://www.coachr.org/biomechanics.htm
Force. (1998, April). Retrieved from Physics and biomechanics: http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/physbio/glossary/g06.html
Hanlon, T. W. (2009). Javelin. Retrieved from Sports Rules Book-3rd Edition: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=HJ0BeoJnbCUC&dq=landing+angle+of+javelin+throw&source=gbs_navlinks_s
How to Throw a Javelin. (n.d.). Retrieved from WikiHow: http://www.wikihow.com/Throw-a-Javelin
Javelin. (2016, March 29). Retrieved from BrainMac Sports Coach: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/javelin/
Javelin Throw. (n.d.). Retrieved from IAAF: http://www.iaaf.org/disciplines/throws/javelin-throw
Javelin Throwing. (2016 , Jun 01). Retrieved from HelpMe.com: http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=149683
Javelin Throwing - Standing throw. (n.d.). Retrieved from Teach PE: http://www.teachpe.com/track_and_field/javelin/javelin-standing.php
Stringer, H. (2013, June 6). Biomechanics: Javelin. Retrieved from Prezi: https://prezi.com/bcssnk60q1qx/biomechanics-javelin/
Swanson, A. (2011, June 30). Basic Biomechanics: Levers . Retrieved from : http://www.aaronswansonpt.com/basic-biomechanics-levers/
Touchette, B. (2014, October 23). Third-Class Levers in the Human Body. Retrieved from education.com: http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/human-machine/
What is Projectile motion? (2016). Retrieved from WiseGeek: http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-projectile-motion.htm
What is Torque? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/torque/Q.torque.intro.html
What levers does your body use? (2007, June 21). Retrieved from Science Learning : http://sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/Sporting-Edge/Looking-closer/What-levers-does-your-body-use
Wood, R. (2010). Topend Sports. Retrieved from Biomechanics & Physics of Sport: http://www.topendsports.com/biomechanics/

Newtons Laws
Newtons First Law: Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it) (Newton's Three Laws, 2016).

Newtons Second Law: The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector ) (Newton's Three Laws, 2016).

Newtons Third Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction ) (Newton's Three Laws, 2016).
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