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Transcript of Space Race
2014. Web. 13 June 2015.
First Moon Landing
"Now it is time to take longer strides—time for a great new American enterprise—time for this nation to take a clearly leading role in space achievement, which in many ways may hold the key to our future on Earth. First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth."
On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 landed on the moon and Neil Amstrong became the first man to walk on the moon.
The project was first introduced in 1961 by John F. Kennedy. He was striving for something that has never been done before:
"Under the intense media scrutiny of an America waiting desperately for something to salve the national pride, the Vanguard rocket was prepared for launch at Cape Canaveral. On December 6, 1957, the slender, delicate instrument was fired, began to rise, and then sank back down on itself, crushing its engines and erupting into a huge fireball. The pathetic collapse was carried live on television, right in front of the world. This was what we were capable of, while the Russians rode the heavens. "
The Space Race
- 20th century (1955–1975)
-Competition between the Soviet Union and the United States for superiority in spaceflight capability
-Both are political cartoons illustrated during 1961 of the space race.
First Animal in Space
First Human in Space
America Sends Man into Space
May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard left the United States for a sub-orbital flight on Freedom 7. He was the second person and first American to travel in space. It was the first pilot-controlled space flight. This is an image of Alan Shepard.
The Space Race
to infinity and beyond
First Satellite to Orbit Earth
On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first satellite called Sputnik. The technology that Sputnik used allowed the Soviets to send rockets anywhere on Earth, including the United States. This triggered the Space Race. This image is a picture of the Sputnik in space.
November 3, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Laika, a female dog, on Sputnik II to test whether space environment was suitable for animals. However, Sputnik II was designed to be irretrievable, so Laika was put to sleep. Laika proved that animals could survive in space. This increased the chances of humans entering space. This image is a picture of Laika in Sputnik II.
April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first human to journey into outer space while travelling on the Soviet Vostok 1. This is an image of Yuri Gagarin.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was consisted of North American countires and was allies with anti-communist countries. The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet Union, which supported communisum. The map above shows the anti-communist allies and communist groups.
“The claim that who controlled space would control the Earth seemed plausible, and the Soviet Union had taken the first step towards that control,” said John Logsdon, the Director of the Space Policy Institute, Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University in Washington, D.C.
Evidence to Support that Sputnik lit the first fire of the Space Race
America felt threatened, therefore, began to compete for superiority in spaceflight.
George E. Reedy, the White House Press Secretary for President Lyndon B. Johnson, said “the simple fact is that we can no longer consider the Russians to be behind us in technology. It took them four years to catch up to our atomic bomb and nine months to catch up to our hydrogen bomb. Now we are trying to catch up to their satellite.”
February 20, 1962, American astronaut John Glenn became the first to orbit Earth, as he circled the earth three times in 4 hours and 56 minutes. To the left is a picture of John Glenn.
First Orbital Travel
First Woman in Space
by David West Reynolds,
Apollo: the Epic Journey to the Moon
, pg 34.
In the same year, America tried to catch up to Soviet's launch of Sputnik, but had failed miserably because of a technical issue. This image is a picture of the first Vanguard project.
June 16, 1963, Valentina Tereshkova was launched by the Soviets on Vostok 6. She travelled alone in space for three days. Her spacecraft went within three miles of another spacraft called Valeri Bykovsky in Vostok 5. It was the first time two spacecrafts passed each other in such a small range while in orbit. This is an image of Valentina Tereshkova.
First Space Station
The Catch Up
The first space station was launched by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971, called the Salyut 1. The original crew, however, died during re-entry on June 30th in the same year. This picture is a blueprint layout of the design.
On May 14, 1973 Skylab was launched by the United States. It was the first Amiercan Space Station. It re-entered Earth's atmosphere on July 11, 1979.
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
"US post-sputnik space activities have served to restore confidence in general US scientific and technological leadership. They have brought about a much more cautious and qualified assessment of the permanence of the Soviet lead in space. But they have not succeeded in restoring the pre-sputnik gap in the general consensus regarding relative US and USSR capabilities, or in erasing the new image of the USSR and Soviet society."
July 7, 1959: USIA Office of Research Analysis
"It should be added, however, that space achievements will continue to be followed closely by world attention; their military implications will be closely scrutinized; and they will continue to be equated with military power and viewed as an index of a country's general level of scientific and technological advancement."
Space acheviements and military acheviements will be seen as one, and if either country makes new technological advancements, the other country will feel threatened.
The United States realizes that they are falling behind the Space Race.
U.S. Information Agency, Office of Research and Analysis, "Impact of U.S. and Soviet Space Programs
on Abroad (Sprague Committee) Records, 1959-1961, Box 6, A83-10, Dwight D. Eisenhower
Library, Abilene, Kansas.
Reynolds, David West. Apollo: The Epic Journey to the Moon. New York: Harcourt, 2002. 34. Print.
Robert D. Launius. (n.d.). Sputnik and the Origins of the Space Age. In NASA History Division.
Leonard David. (October 2002). Sputnik 1: The Satellite That Started It All. Space.com.
Library of Congress, President John F. Kennedy, delivered in person before a joint session of Congress,
May 25, 1961.
This joint docking was between the United States and the Soviet Union, signifying the end of the Space Race. It was conducted during July 1975 and during the docked time, the two crews exchanged gifts and shared a meal. This image is the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project displayed in National Air and Space Museum.
This was the handshake between Astronaut Thomas P.Stafford and cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov, remembered as the end of the Space Race (July 17, 1975).
Dunbar, Brian. "The Apollo-Soyuz Mission." NASA. NASA, 19 Mar. 2010. Web. 13 June 2015.
The famous quote said by Neil Armstrong is "That's one small step for man; one giant leap for mankind" (Brain).
"Space Firsts." Scholastic: Open a World of Possible. Scholastic Inc, n.d. Web. 13 June 2015.
by Annshine & Michelle