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History of Cinema

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Tianna Lenfest

on 17 September 2013

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Transcript of History of Cinema

History of Cinema
Early Years of Cinema
Phenakistoscope
Preconditions
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
Zoetrope
for Motion Pictures
Bioscop
Lantern Slides
Diorama
cin·e·ma


17th-18th century
equivalent to slide projector
slides made with wood & glass
fueled by fire "lantern"
How it all started...
The industrial era : people lived in cities now, so their forms of entertainment were limited
- books of photos, illustrated fiction
A model with 3-D figures
Can be small
or life sized
Normally made with
stuffed animals or
construction paper
Stereoscopes
Handheld viewers



use oblong cards
with two pictures
printed side by side
Create 3-D Effects

Scientists had to realize
the human eye senses motion if...
slightly different images are placed before it in a rapid succession
typically around 16 per second

NEEDED TO BE PROJECTED ON A SURFACE
Ability to use photography to
make successive pictures
on a clear surface
Speed up exposure time..
- Exposure -
presenting rays of light
to a photosensitive
surface
First ever exposure of a photograph:
8 hours
1839
A motion picture - 1 sec exposure
1878
Exposure
presenting rays of light onto a
photosensitive surface
First photograph-
8 hour exposure time
Motion picture - 1 sec exposure
1878

Photos need to be printed
on a flexible base in order
to pass through a camera
1888 - George Eastman
Invented a camera that made photographs on thin rolls of paper
K O D A K
1 year later...
transparent roll of film was created
Needed to find
a suitable device
for cameras and
projectors
The Camera -- film strip had to briefly expose
while light entered through the lens and covered each frame; a shutter then covered
the film as another frame moved into place
Shutter
-- a mechanical device
for opening and closing the aperture of a camera lens to expose the film or the like
A P E R A T U R E
-- An opening,
usually circular, that limits the quantity of light
that can enter an optical instrument
an early animation device
that used the persistence of
motion principle to create
an illusion of motion.
(1833)
(1832)
a device that produces the
illusion of motion from
a rapid succession of
static pictures.
Kinetoscope
designed for films to be
viewed by one individual
at a time through a
peephole viewer window
at the top of the device.
-rubber tubes for listening
Invented by the Skladanowsky brothers
Held two strips of 3 1/2" film running
side by side frames projected alternatively
15 minute programs
too cumbersome
The Lumiere Brothers
Invented a projection system that
helped make cinema a commercially
viable enterprise internationally!
Designed the "cinematographe"
35mm film
16 frames per second (fps)
American Developments
Edison's Kinetoscope -
evolved into vitascope
Inventor - Thomas Armat
Edison manufactured it
Created American Mutoscope Company
70mm film with larger, sharper images
American Developments
-1897: 2 means of viewing films
peep show devices (kinetescope)
projection systems for audiences (bioscop)
-1905: Admission to Nickelodeon
movie theater - $.05-$.10
15-60 minute production
*Audiences sat on wooden benches
front display = hand painted signs
actors stood behind screen and spoke dialogue in synchronization with the screen
sound effects were made with noisemakers behind the screen
Types of Films
Scenics - short travelogues offering views of distant lands
Topicals - News events, recreations of key occurrences in studio
Fiction Films - brief staged scenes telling a story
-some shot outdoors, most in front of backdrops
-1904 -- became the industries main product
-camera set up in one position and action in one shot
Pre-WWI
Edison company -VS- American Mutoscope
1908 - nickelodeons became the main form of exhibition
+- studio system born from nickelodeon boom
-fought over camera patents
-ended up combining
-Created MPCC

American Cinema
(Motion Pictures Patent Company)
M P C C
-limited number of foreign companies
-wanted to control all 3 aspects of the industry
Three Aspects Of Industry
Full transcript