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Illinois: Our State, Our Constitution
Transcript of Illinois: Our State, Our Constitution
Illinois was originally inhabited by various Native American tribes including: Miami, Illiniwek (Illinois), and Potowatomee Indians.
This is where the University of Illinois got its mascot's Name
Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet would be the first Europeans to visit/explore Illinois.
Cahokia is founded and is the oldest city in Illinois. It was named after the Cahokia Indians that created one of the most advanced civilizations in the Ancient World.
Illinois becomes a part of French Louisiana
Britain receives Illinois at the end of the French and Indian War.
Illinois becomes a part of the Northwest Territory
Illinois becomes the 21st State
Abraham Lincoln is inducted in as the 16th President.
Illinois has 3 major geographic locations.
Most of Illinois was under glaciers during the last Ice Age, however some parts were untouched.
Most of Northern Illinois is flat land, now dominated by Chicago and its surrounding cities.
In Illinois' northwestern corner lies its highest elevation point...Charles Mound.
Central Illinois is primarily flat, and is known for its rich fertile soil.
Southern Illinois has flat fertile land towards the central portion of the state.
The Southeast is known for its hills and forests, known as the Shawnee Hills.
The Southwest has high bluffs around the Mississippi.
Illinois has 4 distinct seasons.
Major contrasts between North and South Temperatures/Weather.
Wide variety and amount of precipitation.
Large number of storms all year long.
Average Summer Temps
80* F across the state!
Average Winter Temps
North- 32 inches
South- 48 inches
North- 36 inches
South- 10 inches
St. Louis Cardinals
Plastics and Rubber
The Legislative Branch
Illinois' government has 3 branches of Government.
The Legislative Branch makes laws.
The general Assembly
The General Assembly is what the legislative branch is called. There are 2 parts to the General Assembly.
House of Representatives
There are 118 total members.
Randy Frese is our representative in the House.
State Representatives serve for 2 years and must be 21 years old and live within that district for 2 years.
A state representative is voted on by the people in that district.
Districts split up Illinois, so that representatives and senators can make decisions based on that area's people.
There are 59 State Senators.
John Sullivan is our State Senator.
State Senators serve for 4 years and must be 21 years old and live within that district for 2 years.
State Senators are voted by the people in that district.
How Laws are Made
1.) A bill is proposed based on ideas made by state legislators and others. A bill can start in either the Senate or House. It is read then sent to a committee for review.
2.) The bill is read a second time, and changes are made to it.
3.) At the third meeting it is debated then voted on. With a majority vote it then moves to the other chamber (either the House or Senate).
4.) The second chamber undergoes the same process. If changes are made then it is sent back to the first house, where it would be voted on again.
5.) Once the bill is ready by both chambers it is then given to the governor. The Governor can do three things: Pass it, veto it with recommended changes, or totally veto it. If this happens it can still be passed with a 3/5 majority vote of the General Assembly.
Federal Officials for Illinois
Federal officials serve us in Washington DC as a part of the United States' government.
A little more on Passing a Bill
In order for a bill to become a law it must pass both chambers and the governor.
A veto by the governor can be overridden by a 3/5 majority vote by the General Assembly.
In order for a bill to pass through the General Assembly a majority vote is needed. 60 in the House and 30 in the Senate.
The governor has 60 days to act on a bill, if he doesn't it becomes a law.
Illinois Government: The Executive Branch
The head of the Executive branch is the state governor.
The Governor must be at least 25 years old and a resident of the state for the three years preceding his election, and a citizen. The Governor's term of office is 4 years and may be re-elected an unlimited number of times.
The Governor's jobs:
Administer and Enforce Laws
Appoint members of the state government.
Grant pardons, reprieves, and commutes.
Deliver a state of address.
Commander in chief of the IL military.
Veto or pass bills into law.
Other Members of the Executive Branch
Our Governor is Bruce Rauner.
Secretary of State
Leslie Geissler Munger
The Executive Branch's job is to administer and enforce laws passed by the state's General Assembly.
The Judicial Branch
The Judicial branch consists of the courts in Illinois. Think Judicial...Judge.
The job of the Judicial Branch is to:
Interprets the meaning of law and the Illinois Constitution.
The Illinois Judicial system is made up of 3 courts:
Circuit Courts are the general trial courts.
They have jurisdiction in a particular place, usually a county.
Voters elect circuit court judges to 6 year terms.
Circuit courts are the first level of the judicial system, they handle almost all cases.
Appeals happen when someone in a case was dissatisfied with the verdict in the circuit court.
When this happens the trial goes to the Appellate Court.
Appellate court judges are voted on by the people and serve for 10 years.
The Supreme Court serves as the first court in only extreme circumstances such as cases involving revenue and constitutional questions.
Otherwise, the Supreme Court is the last court of appeals, if a case can not be determined in the other two courts it goes here.
There are 7 Supreme Court judges they are elected and serve 10 year terms.
Voting and Local Government
Qualifications: To vote in Illinois you must be 18 years old, a resident of the district for 30 days, and a US citizen.
Elections: Elections are held in November on even numbered years.
Primaries: Primaries are used to elect members of their party that will run for a position. Think of it as a pre-election.
Disqualification: Someone that is in jail is unable to vote.
Referendums: Sometimes voters are asked to vote on public issues, these are called referendums.
Illinois has 102 counties. It is the largest form of local government.
All counties carry out state policy. Counties enforce laws, prosecute offenders, build and maintain roads, keep records, conduct elections, assess property, and collect taxes.
The United States uses a form of government called federalism. Federalism gives power to both the country and the state.
All 50 states have their own constitutions, but they must be within the laws of the US government.
Each city or town is allowed to practice one of five governments in Illinois.
Illinois has had 4 Constitutions.
The US Constitution gives states the right to create their own constitutions. However, each state's constitution must obey the US Constitution.
Our current constitution has been in use since 1970.
There are two ways to change the constitution:
1.) A constitutional convention can be proposed with a 3/5 majority vote. Voters would then vote to change the constitution or not.
2.) The General Assembly can vote for amendments to be made, the voters would then be able to vote on the changes.
Illinois State Symbols
State symbols are a way to show pride in a state's cultural heritage and natural treasures.
State Tree- White Oak
State Flower- Violet
State Bird- Cardinal
State Slogan- Land of Lincoln
State Animal- White Tailed Deer
State Fish- Bluegill
State Snack Food- Popcorn
Illinois has had 3 Capitals:
Miscellaneous IL Stuff
Illinois is nicknamed the Prairie State because of its flat grasslands.
Illinois is in the Midwestern region of the US.
Border States: N-Wisconsin, NW- Iowa, W- Missouri, SE- Kentucky, E- Indiana
Major Rivers- Wabash River, Ohio River, Mississippi River, Missouri River, Des Moine River, Fox River, Illinois River (Major Lake- Lake Michigan)
Major Cities- Quincy, Springfield, Chicago, Peoria, Bloomington, Rockford, Carbondale
Illinois became a state in 1818!
There are 59 Senate districts
and 118 representative districts.
We live in the the 94th representative district.
We live in the 47th senate district.
There are 102 Counties in Illinois
Illinois is also in the corn belt.
Representatives (House of Representatives)- Illinois has 18 representatives in the House. The representative from our district is Darin LaHood.
Senators (Senate)- Illinois has 2 senators, just like every state. The Illinois Senators are Dick Durbin and Mark Kirk.