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Aurora Borealis

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by

Aditi Shandilya

on 13 December 2012

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Transcript of Aurora Borealis

by Aditi Shandilya Aurora Borealis How Auroras Form: Auroral Formation The Color of the Aurora Extraterrestrial Aurorae Social/Cultural Aspect 1) First, electrons from the sun, penetrate Earth's atmosphere.
2)Then, those electrons meet with either oxygen or nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere.
3)This creates a photon.
4) A lot of photons will create an aurora. Depending on the atoms which the sun's electrons meets with, and the altitude of where they meet, a different color aurora will be made. Aurorae have been seen on a lot of planets in our Solar System.
It is possible for any planet with an atmosphere which is dense enough, and has electrons penetrate the atmosphere to have an aurora. Tribes and different people have beliefs/myths about aurorae. Most of these people live or did live near the auroral zone, because they saw the auroras often. This led to their reasoning for the lights, and the different beliefs were both scientific and also mythical, too. There are some moons which occasionally get aurorae because they have atmospheres. But, mostly, they are protected from electrons and the solar wind by their planet's magnetic field. The Finnish people call the aurora "Revontulet" This is Finnish for "fox fires" It comes from an old fable from Finland, where a fox created an aurora by hitting snow into the air with his tail. Professor Unto K. Laine Professor Unto K. Laine works at Aalto University in Helsinki, Finland. He has been researching aurora-acoustics since 2000, and has written a paper on his data. Aurora Acoustics 1) What creates the “sound” which auroras make?
We don't know yet! The most popular hypothesis is that atmospheric electric (static electric field in the air) causes the sounds through a rapid discharging. Electric field measurements have shown that some times a very strong (high voltage/meter) vertical electric field is created during a geomagnetic storm with aurora borealis.
-Unto K. Laine
2) Is there any “variable” which intensifies the sound which auroras make?
The geomagnetic storm should be strong (large magnetic/electric field variations). The weather should be clear and no wind. In many observations bright and fast moving aurorae are more noisy. However, I have (at least one time) tried to make recordings under these positive conditions and still there was no sound! This means that even if the conditions mentioned are fulfilled this doesn't guarantee that sounds are observed. There are still open, unsolved problems related to auroral sounds.
-Unto K. Laine The Norse people believed an aurora was a maiden goddess traveling to Valhalla. The Carrington Event March 2012 In March of 2012, the biggest solar flare since 5 years occurred. When the 1859 Solar Super-Storm, also known as the Carrington Event, occurred, it caused a lot of damage.
There were reports of "sparks" from telegraph machines, which set paper on fire. Vocabulary photon-particle of light solar storm/solar flare-electron outburst from sun Eskimos from Canada said aurorae were the gods/goddesses of harvest. The most prominent difference between aurorae on Earth and extraterrestrial aurorae is the difference in atmospheres. Since Earth's atmosphere is made up of mostly oxygen and nitrogen, that is what the electrons bond with. But in other planets, like Jupiter, the atmosphere is made of mostly hydrogen, which will make a blue/ultraviolet aurora. 1) What creates the"sound" which auroras make?
Scientists have not found this out yet. But, a lot of people think it is the static electric field in the atmosphere.

2)Is there any "variable" which intensifies the sound which auroras make?
Mostly, everything should be like if you wanted to see an aurora (slide 3). But noises aren't guaranteed even under the best conditions. Conditions Necessary to see an aurora Clear sky, away from city lights
Dark
A lot of solar storm activity borealis-north wind/of north wind-from Latin australis-south This was the biggest recorded solar flare ever, and it was equal to the energy of 10 billion atomic bombs. If that kind of a solar storm were to occur today, it would cause even more disaster, since we depend on technology so much, and the storm would destroy a lot of satellite connections. The storm was so strong that you could see an aurora in the south (of United States), which is very far away from the auroral zone. People actually got up thinking it was daylight! Credits http://www.studyenglishtoday.net/aurora_borealis.html Professor Unto K. Laine http://www.luminarium.org/mythology/revontulet.htm Professor Dirk Lummerzheim The Saami people believed aurorae were the energy of people who died. But they also believed that an aurora was a sign of agreement, and that if you whistled under an aurora, it would come and take you away with it. Before the French Revolution, a red aurora had been sighted. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/09/video-saturn-aurora/ http://www.arcadiastreet.com/cgvistas/jupiter_0020.htm Aurora Aurora In Southern Europe, people thought that a red aurora was a sign of war. http://www.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/www_plasma/visitors/aurora.php http://www.lovethesepics.com/2011/02/24-amazing-auroras-aurora-borealis-aurora-australis/ http://www.lovethesepics.com/2011/02/24-amazing-auroras-aurora-borealis-aurora-australis/ pinterest.com http://gph171ibarra.blogspot.com/2010/08/northern-lights-aka-aurora-borealis.html fineartamerica.com http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/most-popular-photo-gallery/#/teepee-aurora-borealis_26506_600x450.jpg http://www.lovethesepics.com/2011/02/24-amazing-auroras-aurora-borealis-aurora-australis/ http://alaskareport.com/a2.htm zoom in picture hdwallpapers.in Aurorae and Temperature The air temperature at our level isn't affected by the aurora, since it is so high up. But the aurora's powerful electric currents can heat the gas around it. "Air temperature at ground level is not affected at all by aurora. The aurora is 60 miles up and there is no connection to the environment near the ground. ... The aurora has very strong electric currents and these currents heat up the gas [up at auroral altitude], just like a strong current heats up the wire that is goes through."
-Professor Dirk Lummerzheim Dirk Lummerzheim is a professor at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Professor Dirk Lummerzheim
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