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Principles of Effective Materials Development (Tomlinson)

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Brennan Pardee

on 29 October 2014

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Transcript of Principles of Effective Materials Development (Tomlinson)

Principles of Effective Materials Development: Chapter 4 Summary
Brian Tomlinson (2010)

Principles of Language Acquisition:
4. Second language learners should
use the same mental resources
they used when learning their first language (Tomlinson 2010).

5. Learners who notice language features
on their own
tend to learn those features more easily (Ellis 2010; Schmidt & Frota 1986; Tomlinson 2007b).

6. "Learners need
opportunities to use language
to try to achieve communicative purposes" (Tomlinson 2010).
Principles of Language Acquisition:
1. Language learning prerequisite: learners should be exposed to a
rich, meaningful, and comprehensible input
(Krashen, 1985, 1993, 1999; Long 1985).

2. Learners should be truly
engaged in the language experience
, both cognitively and affectively (Arnold 1999; Tomlinson 1998b, 1998d).

Positive affect
is the fastest way to communicative competence (Arnold 1999; Tomlinson 1998d).

Discussion Questions:
Tomlinson stresses the importance of teacher flexibility in the classroom. How can we actually achieve this?

Texts should be simultaneously generalized, and localized. How can teachers make general texts more locally relevant?

Given all this information, why are we even using textbooks? Or, how can we use them more effectively?

Are any of these principles more important than the others, or more relevant to real-world teaching situations?
Principles of Language Teaching:
1. The course should actually
meet the course objectives
, as well as those of the learners themselves (Tomlinson 2010).

2. Learners should be taught to
achieve language development
and not just language acquisition (Tomlinson 2007a).

3. Learners should
become more educated overall
, not just learn a second language (Tomlinson 2010).

Teachers need to be flexible
, and tailor their subjects to local needs or to the interests of their students (Anderson 2006).
Tomlinson believes that language-learning materials should be developed with learning and teaching principles in mind (2010).

This chapter examines the principles that the author believes should guide the creation of materials (Tomlinson, 2010).

Six principles of
language acquisition
Four principles of
language teaching

Dr Massoumi
September 3, 2014
Arnold, J. (ed.). (1999).
Affect in language learning
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anderson, N. J. (2006). L2 learning strategies. In E. Hinkel (ed.).
Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning
. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 757-71.

Ellis, R. (2010). Second language acquisition research and language-teaching materials. In J. Richards (ed.).
English language teaching materials: Theory and practice
. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 33-57.

Krashen, S. (1985).
The input hypothesis
. London: Longman.
Krashen, S. (1993).
The power of reading
. Englewood, NJ: Libraries Unlimited.
Krashen, S. (1999).
Three arguments against whole language & why they are wrong
. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Long, M. (1985). Input and second language acquisition theory. In S. Gass & C. Madden (eds.).
Input in second language acquisition
. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, pp. 377-93.

McKay, S. (1992).
Teaching English overseas
. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schmidt, R., & Frota, S. (1986). Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. In R. Day (ed.).
Talking to learn: Conversation in second language acquisition
. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, pp. 237-326.

Tomlinson, B. (1998b). Introduction. In B. Tomlinson (ed.).
Materials development in language teaching
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tomlinson, B. (1998d). Affect and the coursebook.
145: 20-21.
Tomlinson, B. (2006). Localising the global: Matching materials to the context of learning. In J. Mukundan (ed.).
Readings on ELT materials II
. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Pearson Malaysia, pp. 1-16.
Tomlinson, B. (2007a).
Language acquisition and development: Studies of learners of first and other languages
. London: Continuum.
Tomlinson, B. (2007b). Teachers' responses to form-focused discovery approaches. In S. Fotos & H. Nassaji (eds.).
Form focused instruction and teacher education: Studies in honour of Rod Ellis
. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tomlinson, B. (2010). Principles of effective materials development. In J. Richards (ed.).
English language teaching materials: Theory and practice
. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 81-108.
Textbooks are meant to cater to a variety of teachers with a variety of teaching styles. Therefore, it's almost impossible to develop materials that meet all of these needs simultaneously.

It is our responsibility as teachers to apply these principles to our use of existing materials, or when developing our own materials.

Teacher education on the effective use of materials is lacking. Adequate training could fill the gap between academic research and real-world usage of materials.
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