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Visual Literacy for Management

University of St. Gallen, Course 3,184,1.00

Sabrina Bresciani

on 25 April 2017

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Transcript of Visual Literacy for Management

University of St. Gallen | Course code: 4,198,1.00
1. Color
2. Direction
3. Icons and symbols
4. Humor
5. Visual metaphors
6. Focus of attention
7. Nature of thought
7 main factors of cross-cultural differences
Visualization is a universal language.
Source: United Nations ESCWA public report
Jamae Mosque, Singapore
Conventions of pictorial representation are culture-bound (Scott, 1990)
In the United States it is typical and welcome to use humor in business conversations (Lewis, 1999),
but in many other countries it is perceived as inappropriate, offensive and might not even be understood as humor
Metaphors fulfill their function only if they can be understood cross-culturally (Hogan 2007)
Only a handful of sports are well known globally (Beamer & Varner, 2008)
Field dependence-independence (Witkin and Berry, 1975)
Change blindness (Masuda & Nisbett, 2006)
Westerners: favor abstract and analytic reasoning, rules, categorization
East Asians: holistic view of the world, focus on relationships and similarities
(Nisbett & Miyamoto, 2005)
Visual Literacy for Management
Prof. Dr. Sabrina Bresciani
=mcm Institute | University of St. Gallen

Course material: sabrinabresciani.com/lectures/VisLit/

Bresciani S., Eppler M. (2010). Glocalizing visual communication in organizations, In: Bertagni, B., La Rosa M., Salvetti, F., Glocal working (pp. 233-251). Milan: Franco Angeli.
Information Visualization
Grading policy
Image: Edward de Bono’s Six Thinking Hats concept explained in a Mind Map (source: mindmapinspiration.com)
Sources: Tufte E., Envisioning Information, Graphic Press, Connecticut, 1990
A typical meeting (without visualization)
Visualization makes you happy!
Meetings supported by visualization through technology
Group Support Systems (GSS)
Premise: Seeing as an assumption-based
(Re-) Construction Process
Depth illusion
What do you see?
We see things different from what they are
We see things that are not there
We don‘t see things that are there

► Our perception is a mental process that is systematically biased!

Dan Ariely: «Predictably irrational»
Edward Tufte (Yale University): What makes good visualization?
Jacques Bertin (Paris): What are the visual forms?
Ben Shneiderman (University of Maryland):What makes good Interaction?
Stephen Kosslyn (Harvard University): How does visual perception work?

Charles S. Peirce (diagrammatic thinking)
Plato (theory of representation, platonic shapes)
Influential Visual Thinkers today & yesterday
Gestalt: form or configuration

Idea: forms or patterns transcend the stimuli used to create them.
Why do patterns emerge?
Under what circumstances?
Theory: Gestalt
All Forms of Visualization need to respect the six Gestalt Laws
Source: Koffka, K., 1935, The Principles of Gestalt Psychology, Harcourt Brace, New York
Source: Koffka, K., 1935, The Principles of Gestalt Psychology, Harcourt Brace, New York
Proximity: Elements tend to be grouped together according to their nearness
Similarity: Similar items tend to be grouped together
Figure-ground: Some objects (figures) seem prominent, and other aspects recede into the background (ground)
Continuity: We tend to construct visual elements that are smooth and continuous, rather than abrupt changes in direction
Closure: Items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity
Connectedness, Symmetry: Items will be organized into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness, connectedness.
Gestalt Laws
Figure and Ground
Tom Wujec
Source: Prof. M. J. Eppler – Visual Literacy
+ Aesthetic Value
Explanation Aid + Time Saved + Recall Aid
Design Effort + Interpretation Effort
Maximize the Visualization Value
Color space
Source: Toschi, L. (Ed.), Il linguaggio dei nuovi media, Apogeo: Milano, 2001
Note: the same color appears differently in RGB than in CMYK!
Bitmap and vectorial images
Note: You can convert vectorial images into pixels but not vice-versa
Increases the number of dimensions
Increase the appeal
Proceed with caution and focus:
Less is more
Representing magnitude is tricky

 Select a set of dominating colors
works for costs
-light green
- light brown
-dark brown
-white works for atlases
is unambiguous but has limited range
Latest trend: multi-touch screens

Matthew Tobiasz, Petra Isenberg, and Sheelagh Carpendale. Lark: Coordinating Co-located Collaboration with Information Visualization. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (Proceedings Visualization / Information Visualization 2009), 15(6):1065–1072, November/December 2009.


ETH Value Lab, Zurich
Burkhard R, Meier M, Schneider C, The ETH Value Lab and Two Software Tools for Knowledge Creation in Teams, 13th International Information Visualisation Conference, IEEE, Barcelona, 2009.
Advantages or disadvantages?
Tag cloud
Sources: Cawthon N., Vande Moere A., Qualities of Perceived Aesthetic in Data Visualization, CHI 2007, San Jose, USA
Why? Dual coding theory & Picture superiority effect
“Visualization provides multiple retrieval paths for accessing knowledge”
Dual coding theory
(Paivio, 1969; Clark & Paivio, 1991)

Information is processed through one or two channels:
-the verbal (textual, auditory, sequential)
-non-verbal or imagery (visual, spatial)
using both channels together increases:
recall, engagement and attention

Picture Superiority Effect
(Snodgrass Stewart & Stewart, 2001)
[Optional readings]

“the use of images in cognitive tasks leads to systematically
higher recall than the mere use of words, thanks to the additional
encoding enabled by pictures and their distinctiveness”
Why? Impact on emotional attitude (Huff, 1990; Buzan, 2002)
Source: Visualizing information for advocacy. An introduction to information design, John Emerson, Principal at Apperceptive LLC.
[Optional readings]
oordination: it facilitates interaction.
ttention: it is noticed.
ecall: it is remembered.
otivation: it mobilizes the viewers.
laboration: it fosters understanding.
ew insights: it enables new discoveries.
verload / Oversimplification
anipulation / Misinterpretation
Why discussing disadvantages?

To understand the most common and dangerous problems
To learn to recognize them (evaluation)
To avoid them in our work (creation)

not to diminish the value of visualization!
Sources: Tufte E., Envisioning Information, Graphic Press, Connecticut, 1990
Wainer H., How to display data badly, The American Statistician, Vol. 38, n. 2, 1984.
Please draw a house
Sources: Pro4s, Cambridge, UK
Shimoijma A., On the efficacy of Representations, Indiana University, PhD Thesis, 1996
Bresciani, S., Eppler, M.J. (2009). The Risks of Visualization: a Classification of Disadvantages Associated with
Graphic Representations of Information. In: Schulz, P.J., Hartung, U., Keller, S. (Eds.), Identität und Vielfalt der
Kommunikations-wissenschaft, UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Konstanz (Germany), pp. 165-178 [Required reading]
Improving visualizations:
moderating advantages and disadvantages
no fixed recipe for success:
good mix of analysis, target, tools, and common sense!
Improving visualizations: NASA case
The evening before the launch,
the rocket engineers and managers considered the question:

“Will the rubber O-rings fail catastrophically tomorrow
because of the cold weather?”
Tufte, E. R. (1997): Visual Explanations. Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphic Press.
Challenger (NASA) 1986
Does it seem easy? Obvious?

7 people died
Help the New York Times to present the information with a visualization which is: informative and not misleading
Improving visualizations: NYT case
“Possibly the best statistical graphic ever drawn”
Minard's Graphic of Napoleon's Moscow Campaign of 1812
Source: Tufte, 1983
1. Sketches
Source: http://www.zukunftskongress.uni-freiburg.de/ergebnisdokumentation
Supports client communication
Creates involvement and invites participation
Creates personal touch and simplicity
Case: UBS Hand drawing library
2. Diagrams
Let’s practice!
Develop your own!
3 main goals
Synergies and tradeoffs
Synergy map
(sw: let’s focus)
Causal loops/ system thinking
It visualizes the relationship between items in a circular (loop, non linear) perspective.
It represents how interrelated variables affect one another in a positive or negative way.
3. Visual Metaphors
4. Knowledge Maps
Argument map
5. Interactive vis.
Virtual Worlds
Schmeil, A., Eppler, M.J. (2008). Collaboration Patterns for Knowledge Sharing and Integration in Second Life: A Classification of Virtual 3D Group Interaction Scripts. Conference Proceedings I-KNOW 08, Graz, Austria
Voting/ Decision making
Lego Serious Play for strategy development and corporate identity workshops
Source: www.knowledge-communication.org www.lego.com
Eppler, M.J. & Burkhard, R., Visual Representations in Knowledge Management: framework and cases, Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(11), 112-122, 2007.
By Peter Norvig
Source: Tufte, R. (2003) The cognitive style of PowerPoint, Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphics Press, 2003.
Power Point. A standard but…
Bulletology (missing relations)
Sliding & Splitting (missing overview)
Template temptation (wrong logic)
Source: Ben Shneiderman, The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations. In Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, pages 336-343, Washington. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1996.
Primary tasks that an information visualization system should support:

The information seeking mantra (Shneiderman, 1996):
Details on Demand
+ Relate
+ History
+ Extract
Knowledge Visualization
When should we use which visualization?
“This widespread proliferation [of visualization tools/techniques]
has made it difficult for both the users and evaluators
to select and evaluate effectively an appropriate visualization tool/technique.
In current literature, the evaluation of the visualization techniques
is described on an ad-hoc basis,
without matching the applicability of the techniques to the available context.”

(Padda, Seffah & Mudur, 2007)
Planning the future
Evaluating options
Generating ideas
Sharing knowledge


Classification of knowledge tasks
Bresciani S., Eppler M., (2010). Choosing Knowledge Visualizations to Augment Cognition: the Managers’ View. IEEE
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference Information Visualization IV10, 26-29 July 2010, London, U.K. Best paper award
Ranking of comparative usefullness of visualization (size = familiarity).
Tufte, E. R. The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, Connecticut, Graphic Press, 1986.
Tufte, E. R. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, Connecticut, Graphic Press, 1990.
Tufte, E. R. Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, Connecticut, Graphic Press, 2007.
Ware, C., Information Visualization, Morgan Kaufmann, 2004
Kosslyn S., Graph Design for the Eye and Mind, Oxford University Press, 2006
Buzan Tony & Buzan Barry, The mind map book; London : BBC Books, 2002
Okada, A., Buckingham Shum, S.J., Sherborne, T. (eds.),  Knowledge cartography: software tools and mapping techniques; Goldaming : Springer London, 2008
References (optional)
Nancy Duarte
Duarte, N., Slide:ology, Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2008: XVIII
“Presentations have become the de facto business communication tool.
Companies are started, products are launched, climate systems are saved –
Possibly based on the quality of presentations”
An Inconvenient truth, 2006: Documentary film
Slide:ology by Nancy Duarte (2008)
The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs (Gallo, 2010):
Plan in analog (thinking, sketching, planning)
Answer “Why should I care” question
Develop a messian sense of purpose (aka: passion)
Create twitter-like headlines
Draw a roadmap: rule of 3 (principle of persuasion)
Introduce the antagonsit
Reveal the conquering hero
Source: http://darmano.typepad.com/logic_emotion/visual-thinking-synthesis.html
Gallo, C., The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs, McGraw Hill: New York [etc.], 2010
A typical meeting (without visualization)
Phaal, R., Muller, G., Toward Visual Strategy: An Architectural Framework for Roadmapping, Proceedings of PICMET 2007: Portland, Oregon, USA, 2007
Ingredients: 4Ps: People, Poster, Post-its, Pen
Group size: up to 4 people can be self managed, 5-30 people need a facilitator, 30-60 people is difficult to manage
Activities: brainstorming, scenarios (exploration), timeline,
motivation (goal oriented), diffusion, warm-up discussion
Time: 1 hour to several days
Typical process
Every person/group generates ideas and write them on post-it notes
One by one stick the notes on poster (multiple rounds) and comment
Moderator places similar topic (notes) together
All people (together or in sequence) place sticky arrows on most relevant issues (to focus on emerging topics) and comment
All people together (parallel) place sticky dots on the important and feasible issues/options to vote (“where would you invest?”)
Summary, take-aways, continuous revision over time
Alternate small groups and plenary sessions
different sticky notes for different tasks
(assesments with arrows and dots)
Support: paper, whiteboard, software
“Even if the plan is useless, planning is crucial”

Main added value:
very democratic
easy to understand
motivate contributions
avoid group thinking
process is flexible and scalable

never the boss first
Check time (alarm or screen saver)
Smart conflict management
Source: Beeton D.A., Exploratory Roadmapping for Sector Foresight, PhD dissertation in Engineering, University of Cambridge
Source: Environmental Protection Agency & Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, September 2001, ETH Zurich
Eppler M., Platts K. (2009). Visual Strategizing. The Systematic Use of Visualization in the Strategic-Planning Process. LRP Long Range Planning.
Domain: (knowledge) management and education

Similar concepts: conceptual visualization, qualitative graphic representation, infographic
Domain: computer science
“the use of computer-supported, interactive, visual representations of abstract data to amplify cognition” (Card et al. 1999)
Source: Eppler, M.J. & Burkhard, R., Knowledge Visualization, Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, Idea Group Inc., 2006.
Source: Stefan Bertschi, Sabrina Bresciani, et al., "What is Knowledge Visualization? Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline," iv, pp.329-336, 2011 15th International Conference on Information Visualisation, 2011
“designates all graphic means that can be used to represent and convey complex insights, experiences, or capabilities” (Eppler & Burkhard, 2006)

“Knowledge Visualization is expressing concepts through meaningful graphical mapping. “ (Bertschi, Bresciani et al., 2011).
Knowledge Visualization:
Information Visualization:
Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8381597.stm
In this age of information overload, a new solution is emerging that could help us cope with the oceans of data surrounding and swamping us.
It's called information visualisation.
Source: compiled from www.corda.com

Use gapminder
to find and

Be prepared to present it
Rectangular, space-filling approach for visualizing hierarchical data (multilevel / nested)
To compare
Tegarden, P., Business Information Visualization, Communications of AIS, Vol. 1 (4), 1999. [Optional reading]
Source: http://www.bashiba.com/movies/PANORAMA_OCT_07.wmv
Design Process
Important topic
Required reading
50% individual assignment
50% group work

Visualize yourself!
Group work
support micro entrepreneurs in understanding and improving their businesses through the use of VISUALIZATIONS.
Practice presenting without PowerPoint.

4 participants

See syllabus for all details

Report: Please use the template provided online
Presentation: no PPT/Keynote

Avoid academic dishonesty!
Goal: map your curriculum/life/portfolio (Visual resume)
Application: as addition/structure to your CV/portfolio, map of your website/blog, etc.

=>produce something useful for you, be creative!

Requirements: only 1 page & apply the concepts learned in this course: use visualization to give insight! Not for decoration
Free format: static, online, map, metaphor, diagram, sketch, video, poster, animation, etc.
1 page only: not a booklet or classic portfolio | it can be interactive (mouseovers, links...)
No mind maps, no tag clouds,
no slide share, no pie charts,
no decoration of classic CVs, please!
Get inspiration at:
Google images: visual resume
Possibly post it online
(On your website, blog, Flickr, G+, Pinterest...)
What you should
© Sabrina Bresciani | University of St. Gallen
Note: you are not evaluated on your skills in drawing or using graphic software
but professional
Be prepared to see it go viral
What this course is NOT:
training course on
PowerPoint or presentations
A course on drawing and sketching
A guide to advertising practices
A course on layout and graphic design
A tutorial on graphic techniques
An art crash course
A seminar on visual rhetoric or visual semiotics
Applications in organizations:
Meetings facilitation
Internal communication
Sales/ explaining complex products
Web design/graphics
‘Internal’ conceived Pictures
Metaphysical pictures (the authentic forms)
Language pictures (metaphors)
Mental pictures (imagination)
Ethical (lead ideas, positive examples, Vision)

‘External’ material Pictures
Representative (object paintings, photo, illustration)
Logical (diagrams, maps)
Reflective (impressionist/expressionism, dadaistic art)
Picture Types in Philosophy
(Sachs-Hombach, 2005, p. 110)
Which disciplines examine visualization?
Computer Science
Graphic Design (incl. information & communication design, typography)
Psychology (cognitive, neural, of perception)
Art (incl. art history, photography)
Mathematics & Logic
Business studies, particularly Advertisement and consumer research, but also management (strategy and decision) sciences.
Communication and Media Studies (incl. new media, TV, film)
Education Sciences, Pedagogy
Philosophy (aesthetics, epistemology)
Theology, Archeology, Ethnology, History
Political Sciences and legal studies
What? Reasoning, evaluating, problem solving
Why? Lower computational effort compared
to sentential representations
Source: Larkin and Simon 87: Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words
*Salience = how a representation facilitates focusing
and processing certain information, at the expense of others
Visuospatial reasoning
Tversky (2004) and Larkin and Simon (1987)

When visualization is used, cognitive abilities for reasoning, evaluating and solving problems are enhanced

Visuospatial advantages (mapping):
Organizes information
-Reduce cognitive load
- Enhance representation of relationships among complex constructs
(O’Donnel et al. 2002)
Salience (Green Suthers, 2001)
Japanese train time table
Sources: Tufte E., Envisioning Information, Graphic Press, Connecticut, 1990
Choosing visualizations
3. Diagonal
Convention breaks
Edgy (= dangerous) Shapes
Source: Relativity, Escher
Source: "Vertumnus"
(1590-1591) by Giuseppe Arcimboldo
Visual Humour:
visual puns, visual mind games
challenge expectations, create surprise
show the impossible or absurd
confuse: create contradiction or conflict, mismatch genre and content
Why? Attention, recall, motivation to act (buying impulse/ cause)

Employ humour
Use strong Visual Variables:
Emotionally loaded colors (red)
Visual rythm (crescendo, escalation)
Employ elipses (use preconceived ideas to let the viewer finish the picture)
Emphasize contrasts between images
Create an intriguing connection between text and image
Show people with strong emotions, dramatic events, shocking pictures
Emotional Story Telling
Advertisement: Principles to get attention
Source: Beryl McAlhhone & David Stuart, 1996, A Smile in the Mind
Create unlikely Pairs (juxtaposition)
Play with Ambiguity
Confound Expectations with ambiguous cues
Substitute elements that don’t belong
Create a Missing Link
Reduce to the max: visual economy
Shift scale time or view
Use visual Puns and rebuses
Take language literally
Pay tribute: homage
Use a face
Connect the visual to the phisical
Rules: Lidwell, Holden, Butler
(Usability in Information and Industrial Design)
80/20 Rule: focus on the 20 percent of information that gives 80 percent of the answer
Affordance: show in the shape how something should be used
Progressive Disclosure: display only necessary information, not all available information at once.
Closure: one perceives conceptual elements as group.
Chunking: group items for easier information processing
Alignment: the placement of elements such that edges line up.
Maximize the signal-to noise ratio (Tufte): Avoid decoration, design effects that create distraction. Reduce all unnecessary elements.
Consistency: similar parts are expressed in similar ways.
Highlight: but not more than 10 percent, through bold or italic
Form follows function: beauty in design results from purity of function…
Steve Jobs, quoting Leonardo Da Vinci
“Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication”
Al Gore presentation:
created by Duarte Design
with Apple’s Keynote
+ Illustrator, Photoshop, AfterEffects
(for more complex animations) and videos

Why Apple’s Keynote?
- anti-aliases fonts and graphics
- scales vector objects
Gallo, C., The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs, McGraw Hill: New York [etc.], 2010
The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs (Gallo, 2010)
Visual identity
External communication
Internal communication
What is it?
Visual identity
Source: Balmer, JMT, Corporate identity, corporate branding and corporate marketing.
Seeing through the fog, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 35 No. 3/4, 2001, pp. 248-291.
Siurce: Van den Bosch, de Jong and Elving, How corporate visual identity supports reputation, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 10 No. 2, 2005, pp. 108-116.
Corporate visual identity (CVI) comprises all the symbols and graphical elements that express the essence of an organisation
(van den Bosch, de Jong and Elving, 2005)
“organization’s symbols and system of identification”
(Balmer, 2001: 257)
What is it?
“What we are”
Corporate identity:
Balmer, JMT, Corporate identity, corporate branding and corporate marketing.
Seeing through the fog, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 35 No. 3/4, 2001, pp. 248-291
Current perception and/or profile
(held by others)
Corporate image:
What is NOT? (False friend)
Alina Wheeler, Designing brand identity. A complete guide to creating, building, and maintaining strong brands, New York, Wiley, 2003, pg. 127
clear intendedmeaning, evoked across people
evaluation of a logo can affect evaluations of a company
occurs when people believe they have seen the logo when they really have not
Remember seeing the logo.
A more memorable design will be recognized more easily than a less memorable one
Familiar meaning
Affect (emotional reaction)
False recognition
Correct recognition
Pamela W Henderson; Joseph A Cote, Guidelines for selecting or modifying logos, Journal of Marketing; Apr 1998; 62, 2; pg. 14-30
Logo objective:
Pamela W Henderson; Joseph A Cote, Guidelines for selecting or modifying logos, Journal of Marketing; Apr 1998; 62, 2; pg. 14-30
What makes a good logo?
Let’s practice!
Develop a logo for a student association

Logo check criteria
Example: University of Lugano
Example: Politecnico di Milano
Alina Wheeler, Designing brand identity. A complete guide to creating, building, and maintaining
strong brands, New York, Wiley, 2003, pg. 127
Example: BP
Positive example: e3 a Swiss start-up
Brand Early, Not Often
BY FastCompany Expert Blogger Emily Heyward
Mon Nov 14, 2011

“We understand the importance of branding, but right now we have to focus on other things.“

“We just want to get it out there; we’ll see what sticks and make changes as we go.”
Bresciani S., Illia, L. (2011). Start-up (re)branding: the instable visual identity of new ventures. 14th ICIG Symposium: Identity, identification and the management of change. 14-16 September 2011, Segovia, Spain.
New logo:
Developed by the wife of the founder
Problem: 150 employees w. uniforms
“it would be a big expense and at the moment there are no concrete plans for substitution”
Best strategy in M&A: keeping visual elements of both companies
270.000 employees, 190 million customers, 102 countries
Brand Architecture
Source: Hayward, p. 9
The graphical variables of animation include:
1. Size: change in value
2. Shape: different projections
3. Position: show change in location, movement through time.
4. Speed: to accentuate the rate of change
5. Viewpoint: A change in the angle of view, to accentuate a particular part of the map
6. Scene: visual effects of fade, mix, and wipe to indicate a transition in an animation from one subject to another
8. Texture, Pattern, Shading, Color: to accentuate a feature.
Viewing images on mobile devices: http://www.cooliris.com/
What’s the difference?
Data Visualization Tools
for creating graphs, Gantt charts, diagrams, calendars/schedulers, mapping, pivot tables, sparklines, etc.
“The top 1000 citation links are plotted. Line size and opacity represents connection strength. The Bezier curves follow the hierarchical cluster structure, using the hierarchical edge bundling technique”
Eppler, M.J. & Mengis, J., Management Atlas, Management-Methoden für den Arbeitsalltag, Hanser, 2011. ISBN-10: 3-446-42701-5
Collaborating through visualization
Source: Bresciani S., Blackwell F.A., Eppler M, (2008) A Collaborative Dimensions Framework: Understanding the Mediating Role of Conceptual Visualizations in Collaborative Knowledge Work, Proceedings of the 41st HICSS conference
Is the visualization attractive and eye-catching?
Is the visualization easily understandable at first sight and easy to navigate, with low cognitive effort?
To what extent does the visualization
resemble a final, polished product ?
To what extent does the visualization draw attention to the main item(s) of the discussion?
Source: Tufte
To what extent does the visualization generate new insights and understanding as a result of the constraints of the visualization form?
Source: Schneiderman, The eyes have it; Newsmap
To what degree can the items of the visualization be altered in response to the dynamics of the discussion ?
 Remark: perceived finishedness ≠ modifiability
High perceived finishedness
(= not sketchy)‏
High modifiability (sw)
Low perceived finishedness
(= highly sketchy)‏
Low modifiability
To what extent does the visualization support
control over the discussion and work flow?
Source: T.R.G. Green and M. Petre, “Usability analysis of visual programming environments: a ‘cognitive dimensions’ framework”, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 7 , 1996, 131–174.
“fixing a problem with one dimension
will usually entail a change in some other dimension”’
Visualization: Mountain trail
Visualization: causal loops
Group discussion: strategy implementation problems
visualization support (software)
unsupported (only flipchart)
Subjects: 136 managers (in groups of 5)
Collaborative Knowledge Visualization
Empirical evidence
Initial knowledge (test before the experiment): 5.5 implementation problems
*Disclaimer: quantity is not necessarily an indicator of quality

Bresciani, S., Eppler, M.J. (2009). The Benefits of Synchronous Collaborative Information Visualization: Evidence from an Experimental Evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 15 (6), November/December 2009, pp. 1073-1080.
Source: http://research.microsoft.com/towards2020science/background_overview.htm
www.nature.com March 23, 2006, vol.440
Knowledge Visualization:
designates all graphic means that can be used to represent and convey complex insights, experiences, or capabilities

COLLABORATIVE Knowledge Visualization: designates giving a tangible form to the dialogue and the interaction of a group of people; one visualizes the knowledge that emerges through the interaction of a group
(Social) Entrepreneurship
Test for vision acuity:
Reading patterns
1. Gutenberg diagram
2. Z-pattern
3. F-pattern
Web design
reading patterns
Contract Visualization
Passera and Haappio 2011
David B. Berman (2008). Do good design, Peachpit Press
David B. Berman (2008). Do good design, Peachpit Press
look right through the picture – as though it's not there – so that your focus seems to be a far-off object, hence the parallel lines of sight
Fishbone/Ishikawa diagram
Gantt chart

Concept map
Stephen Few (2006). Information Dashboard Design: The Effective Visual Communication of Data. O'Reilly Media
Useful guide: http://www.perceptualedge.com/articles/Whitepapers/Common_Pitfalls.pdf
Getting pictures:
iStockphoto: www.istockphoto.com
Flickr Creative Commons: www.flickr.com/creativecommons
Everystockphoto: www.everystockphoto.com
Design thinking
Tim Brown (2009) Change by Design
Keep it simple
Average: 1 slide every 2 minutes

Guy Kawasaki: 10/20/30 rule for entrepreneurs pitch: ‘ten slides, last no more than twenty minutes, and contain no font smaller than thirty points’

Depends on the style - fast paced presentations are intriguing
Seth Godin:
‘No more than six words on a slide. EVER.’

Presentation Zen: min. font 30pt

Slideology: depends on the medium
and distance of audience -> test!
Font: Frutiger
Bauhaus School, Germany
Non professional
Aligned: center
Aligned: left (or right)
Highlighting what is important
Contrast: identify the main point
Rule of thirds
Parallel Coordinates
For visualizing highly multivariate datasets
Case study
Getting attention
Attention / Motivation
Pantone color system
Concepts / ideas
Classification of Sketches poster (Eppler and Pfister, 2010)
Knowledge visualizations & tasks
Does it work?
Bring to class:
a smile
colorful pencils
optional: laptop
Let's practice!

Draw a map of "Visual Literacy for Management"
(reducing information overload)
Source: Duarte, N., Slide:ology, Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2008
- Question 1
- Develop a "visual strategy" for yourself/ your business
The tree nodes are encapsulated into the area of their parent node. The size of the single nodes is determined proportionally in relation to all other nodes of the hierarchy by an attribute of the node (Johnson and Shneiderman, 1991)
Color deficiencies
Test: print in black&white
Source: http://www.slideshare.net/Alex.Osterwalder/business-models-beyond-profit-social-entrepreneurship-lecture-wise-etienne-eichenberger-iqbal-quadir-grameen-bank-grameen-phone
Example: CEMS at HSG
Source: Morecroft, J., van Ackere, A., 1997. Systems thinking and the art of modeling. In: Mastering Management. Pitman Publishing, London, pp. 147–155.
The power of Pinterest for marketing
Source: Ries, L. (2012). A picture is worth... Are marketing messages ignoring half of your prospect's brain? Marketing Management, summer 2012
Source: Ries, L. (2012). A picture is worth... Are marketing messages ignoring half of your prospect's brain? Marketing Management, summer 2012
Which brain dominates?
“You are the storyteller of your own life, and you can create your own legend,
or not.”
Isabel Allende
Roam, Dan. 2008. The Back of the Napkin: Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with Pictures. Portfolio / Penguin Group (USA) Inc.
Source: Eppler M.J. & Pfister, R. (2010) Sketching at work. =mcm University of St. Gallen: pg. 21. Based on Mayer.
Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Illustrator
Gartner case study
When to use which chart type?
Corporate Design book
people can share, collect and organize pictures of their interests on their Pinboards. People can follow other’ s people pinboard or repin, like and comment on pictures.
Visual social network
Fastest growing social networking website ever

To reach women: is the only SN in which the majority of users are women

To reach 'older' users: the average age is higher than the in other social networks

Many re-pins (80%), few comments

Business Model Canvas
What is SE
Idea generation
Idea refinement
Idea promotion & fundrising
Sales and instructions
a template
Strategy Communication
Case study

Please answer
Question 4 and 5

Be ready to present and
hand in your answers

(not 4a)
The group work revision will take place at the same time
Total time: 30 minutes (case study + revision)
Work with the participants of your group assignment

Discuss which presentation methods and tool you will use for the final group presentation

Plan a layout/grid/structure and color palette
Does it work?
460 participants in Europe and Asia
- strategy is perceived as better

when it is visualized
- subjects are more committed to implement it!

Cultural preferences:
-Westerners prefer linear abstract diagrams
- Non-westerners prefer metaphors and story-telling
Communicating strategy
- with text vs. visual
- with culture-specific visuals
Source: Bresciani S., Eppler M., Tan, M., (2011). Communicating Strategy Across Cultures with Visualization: An Experimental Evaluation. Academy of Management annual meeting, 12-16 August 2011: San Antonio, Texas. Carolyn Dexter Award nominee.
Permanent contacts:
sabrinabresciani.com | kolours.org
- brand awareness
- drive traffic to the official websites
- generating interests
- increasing shares and spread on social networks
Visuals & Social media
images get 50% more interactions than content
photos get 10 times more share than links
The latest trends in social media are visual
Images are the most shared links on twitter
Publishers who use infographics grow in traffic 12%
more than those who don't
Visual strategy
1. Assess competitors
2. Assess existing images (for the topic)
on the web and on social media
3. Which images do people share/comment/pin?
4. How can you translate your content into images?
5. consider your audience
Source: Neher, K (2013). Visual Social Media Marketing. Boot Camp Publishing.
How many words? Font size?
How many slides?
Presentation tools/methods
Step 1.
Individual task: write a list with all the presentation tools and techniques you can think of.

Step 2.
Create a group of 4 students and join your ideas VISUALLY according to criteria of your choice
(example: task, novelty, medium, cost, difficulties, context, etc.)

Step 3.
Present your visual summary of presentation techniques to the class
i.e., PPT, Keynote, Prezi, drawing on a whiteboard/flipchart,
poster, movies...
Timetoast (timelines)
Sticky notes
objects (i.e., legos)
inspiration.com (edu)
mindjet (mindmap)
compedium (arg mapping)
Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator
HTML5 / Java
Videos with special effects
(with After Effects or Ventuz)
Videos (i., with Premiere)
Spacedeck (online whiteboard)
Piktochart, Venngage (infographs)
Data visualization tools: Tableau
debategraph (arg maps)
Financial Visualization
Participants who used the sketchy font and symbol
collaborated more, built more on each other ideas
and had more elaborated ideas
Evaluate visualizations
according to the collaborative dimensions
The limits of PowerPoint
(and Keynote)
Beyond PPT
Mapping Software:
Prezi, lets-focus.com, mind-maps

3D virtual worlds:

videos, and animated films

Flash animations

Posters, murals
Templates + post-its


“A presenter spends up to ninety hours to create an hour-long presentation that contains thirty slides” Nancy Duarte
+ holistic logic, zoom in-out
+ integrating simulations , holistic
- time-consuming to develop.
+ engage an audience emotionally
- require video editing skills
+ complex animations, interaction
- time consuming to prepare
+ personal touch, allows interaction
- cannot be seen clearly; need sketching skills
+ physical presence,
- cannot be seen clearly
& Innovation
Concept fan method (by DeBono)
Selecting ideas
Solution evaluation
Application: 3D Printing
Haba model of assessment
When to use which chart type?
Measuring social impact: a comparison of approaches
*developed by students of this course
Path to success method (by Eppler)
User observation database
Empathy map

Analyzing needs
Semantic profile
Sweet spot
Commercial product example:
Epson Bright Link Pro

(a-ha effect)
Why? Visuospatial reasoning
(Tversky 2004)
i.e. pattern recognition, search,
Source: https://finviz.com/map.ashx?t=sec&st=w1
Full transcript