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Transcript of Group Dynamics
Group Decision Making
Potential Problems within Groups
"All teams are groups but not all groups are teams."
A group is a collection of people who interact with one another, work toward some common purpose, and perceive themselves as a group.
In a team, members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose, a set of performance goals, and an approach to the task.
The guidelines for acceptable and unacceptable behaviors that are informally agreed on by group members.
FORMAL VS INFORMAL GROUPS
A FORMAL GROUP is one deliberately formed by the organization to accomplish specific tasks and achieve goals
INFORMAL GROUPS emerge over time through the interaction of workers.
FOUR TYPES OF WORK TEAMS
A work group composed of workers from different specialties, but at about the same organizational level, coming together to accomplish a task.
A small group of people who conduct almost all of their collaborative work by electronic communication rather than face-to-face meetings.
A group of specialists each of whom has specific roles, performs brief events that are closely synchronized with the work of other specialists, and repeats these events under different environmental conditions.
Top Management Teams
The group of managers at the top of most organizations.
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
Confusion, caution and communality are typical at this phase.
Known as the "shakedown" period. Hostility, infighting, tension and confrontation are typical.
Stage of overcoming resistance and establishing group standards of conduct
Group is ready to focus on accomplishing its key tasks.
Temporary work groups are abandoned after their task has been accomplished
ROLES WITHIN GROUPS:
provides the group with useful and valid information
forces the group to look at how it functions
assumes some of the leader's responsibility for providing emotional support to teammates and resolving conflict.
criticize any decision or preliminary thinking that is deficient in any way, including being unethically unsound
contributes so substantially to team success that it compromises a separate role
when the opportunity gate is closed to several members, the gatekeeper keeps it open
encourage the team to define its mission and list its three main objectives
mediates the disputes in the team
(developed by R. Meredith Belbin)
It is important for group members to understand the roles that others play whrn and how to let another group member take over, and how to compensate for the shortcomings of others in the group.
Characteristics of Effective Work Groups
Right Mix & Size
Effective Group Processes
making a job more motivational and satisfying by adding variety, responsibility and managerial decision making
Empowered teams share four experiences: potency, meaningfulness, autonomy and impact
members depend on one another to accomplish work
A team's belief that it can successfully perform a specific task
It enhances creativity
It can decrease the tendency of the group to stick together
High group emotional intelligence requires creating norms that establish mutual trust among members, a sense of group identity and team efficacy.
Key support factors include giving the group information it needs, coaching group members, providing the right technology and receiving recognition and other rewards.
Communication and cooperation
takes place when members work closely with each other, in a unified, cooperative manner
the specific knowledge group members have of their jobs, coworkers and the environment
refers to a group playing a role in making a decision
consultative decision making
democratic decision making
consensus decision making
The Nominal Group Technique
An approach to developing creative alternives that requires group members to generate different solutions independently
The Delphi Technique
A group decision making technique designed to provide group members with one another's ideas and feedback, while avoiding some of the problems associated with interacting groups
A situation in which postdiscussion attitudes tend to be more extreme than prediscussion attitudes
also called freeloading or shirking individual responsibility, when a person is placed in a group setting and removed from individual accountability
A detorioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement in the interest of group cohesiveness