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TImeline of WWII
Transcript of TImeline of WWII
Civil wars lasted until 1921. Lenin and the communist revolution in Russia On November 11th, armistice was signed and WWI ended. The League of Nations was formed afterward to prevent another world-wide war. Logo of the League of Nations - The Treaty of Versailles was signed in June. It left the Germans resentful and indirectly became one of the factors that started WWII. The Treaty of Versailles was signed at Versailles, France Mussolini founded the Fascist Party in while Italy was struggling from the impact of WWI. Benito Mussolini 1921 1922 The Fascist Party led by Mussolini set up a Fascist state in Italy. They meet no resistance when overthrowing the original government. 1922 in Italy 1923 TIMELINE OF WWII Hitler tried to imitate Mussolini. His
revolution failed and he was arrested, but he became a national figure. The extreme nationalism that he promoted was followed by many Germans. Adolf Hitler 1924 The communists in Russia won the civil war, and the Soviet Union (USSR) was formed. Territories and the flag of USSR Lenin died, and Joseph Statin replaced him. Stalin promoted massive industrialization (heavy industry) and killed or sent the people who disobeyed him to labor camps. Under the dictatorship of Stalin, the Soviet Union soon rose to be one of the greatest industrial, military and political forces in the world. Propaganda of Stalin ...... 1929 The Great Depression Began. 1930 1931 1932 Japan wanted to expand in Asia and attacked China on September, 18th. The Northern part of China, Manchuria was seized. The League of Nations did nothing to it (partly because of the Great Depression). Map of Eastern Asia in 1931 Hitler was appointed Prime Minister by the German President. He built up strong military and industrial forces, and many work projects. Germany soon recovered from the results that the Treaty of Versailles brought them. The Volkwagen (the people's car) - One of the work projects that Hitler Promoted 1933 1934 The President of Germany was dead and Hitler became the only leader of Germany by combining the PM and President. The economy of Germany boomed because of enormous amount of work projects. Under Hitler's control, human rights were ignored, especially the rights of Jewish people (Hitler though the Jews were racially inferior). 1935 - Mussolini invaded Ethiopia (a League Member in Africa). Emperor of Ethiopia asked the League for help, but the League did nothing. - Hitler announced the creation of the German air force. It was against the Treaty of Versailles, but the League did nothing. Hitler reoccupied Rhineland (Western Germany). People in Rhineland were ethnically and culturally very close to the Germans, so they were happy about the fact that they were occupied by Germany. 1936 1937 Japan began a full-scale invasion of China on July 7th. The League did nothing. The Japanese army organized a holocaust of Chinese civilians in Nanking in 1937 1938 The
Kristal Nacht Seizing Austria Munich Crisis Nazi groups in Ausria invited Hitler to seize Austria. Just like occupying Rhineland, most Austrians were happy about it, and it was against the Treaty of Versailles. Again the League of nations did nothing. Hitler wanted to seize Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia. Czech was allies with France while France was Britain's ally. Czech asked for help, but the PM of Britain, Chamberlain, as well as the PM of Canada, Mackenzie King, appeased Hitler and agreed to give Hitler Sudetenland. After signing the Munich Agreement with Hitler, Chamberlain proclaimed "Peace in our time." Map of Germany in 1938 Austrians welcoming Hitler and the Nazi Germans. Chamberlain met Hitler Czechoslovakia after the Munich Crisis The Kristal Nacht (Night of the Broken Glass) took place. The Jewish shops, Synagogues were smashed and burned. The Jewish in Germany tried to flee Germany, but many countries, including Canada, refused to accept the Jewish refugees. At least half of the Jewish who were returned to Germany were killed in the holocaust. Burnt Synagogues in the Kristal Nacht 1939 The U.S. wasn't a member of the League because of isolationism. Also, later it was clearly shown that the League of Nations was a failure. Seizing Czechoslovakia Non -
Aggression Pact Fall of Poland WWII Began Canada
entered the war Hitler didn't follow the Munich Agreement. Eventually, he broke his promise of not having "territorial demands in Europe" and seized Czechoslovakia. Hitler signed a “non-aggression pact” with Stalin
- Stalin wanted to have more time to build up his army.
- Hitler wanted to avoid war on the Eastern side).
Stalin became neutral in August after the pact. Both the USSR and Nazi Germany wanted to avoid war with each other, Poland became their shields. After the Pact, Poland was divided up by Germany and USSR. On September 1st, Germany attacked Poland using the strategy of "blitzkrieg" (lightening war, attacking from land, sea and air), Poland fell in one day. Britain and France realized that they shouldn't have trusted Hitler after Hitler invaded Poland. On September 3rd, both Britain and France declared war on Germany, and WWII began. As a sign of having autonomy, Canada didn't declare war with Britain automatically. Instead, Canada waited for a whole week and declared war on Germany on Sept. 10th. First Canadian troop arrived in Britain in Dec. 1939. Canadian troops Invasion
of Finland The Soviet invaded Finland in Nov. 1939, and later invaded other Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania. 1940 The Phoney War The Maginot Line and fall of Paris Dunkirk Battle of Britain When the Allie forces gather, preparation wasn’t done on time. Soldiers trained without proper equipment for months. Until May 1940, the Allies were not fighting; it was called “The Phoney War.” While the Allies were busy preparing themselves, Germany and Soviet had already divided up Europe. E.g., Soviet invading Finland and Baltic States, and Germany invading Denmark (Denmark fell in one day under the attack of blitzkrieg). Later, Norway was also occupied by Germany. The Maginot line built by France was a large fortified system of tunnels, guns turrets and concrete walls along the German boarder to prevent from Germany’s attack. However, the Germans entered France through Belgium in May. Again, Germans took over Paris and eventually France very quickly. In June 25th, France officially surrendered and a puppet government was set up in France. As shown on the map, the Maginot Line was along the Germany boarder and had strong fortifications. To the South of the Maginot Line laid the Alps and the neutral country Switzerland, and to the North is Belgium and a dense area of forests. The Germans eventually crushed through the forests and entered France through Belgium. Map of Europe after the fall of France More than 338000 British, French, Polish, Belgian, Dutch troops were pushed to the port of Dunkirk on the English Channel after Germans entered France. Hitler could have killed all the Allies stuck in Dunkirk, but he didn’t (this is one of the major mistakes that Hitler made in the war). This brief pause became a dramatic rescue.
The British assembled as many boats as they could (including fishing and commercial boats) and picked up as many Allies soldiers as they could. France fell, and Britain was next while Canadian soldiers defended its shore. However, Winston Churchill, war time PM of Britain, refused to surrender. Some German soldiers accidently bombed London, and the Allies bombed Berlin in return to “irritate” the Germans. As expected, instead of focusing on pushing back the Allies, the Germans started to bomb London for 57 nights (this was another major mistake that Hitler made in the war): “the Blitz”. Forty-three thousands of people (including civilians) were killed. The RAF (British Air Force) used this 57 days to regroup by September. Radar systems were recovered, more pilots were trained (Mackenzie offered Canada as a training ground) London after bombardment. 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 Atlantic Russia Pacific Jews The Battle of Atlantic was the longest battle in WWII; Churchill thought the war was the most important factor of the war. Germans used U-boats to attack Allied ships just like in WWI. The Royal Canadian Navy was sent to protect the convoys. By the end of the war, Canada had the 4th largest navy in the world. Despite the Non-aggression Pact, Hitler invaded the USSR in the June of 1941 for several reasons: Hitler hated communism; Hitler wanted the land and resources of USSR; Hitler thought USSR could be taken over easily and Britain will surrender after that. Also, Hitler thought Russian was an inferior race. The Russians did lost at first, but after the Battle in Stalingrad, German troops were pushed into middle Russia, and Stalin cut off the supplies of Germans. Meanwhile, winter came, and the Germans in Middle Russia suffered for not having proper gears and supplies. Eventually, the Germans lost miserably in Russia. The U.S. remained neutral until December 7th, Japan launched air attack on the American Naval Base, Pearl Harbor in Hawaii (Japan wanted to gain control over the Pacific for resources and considered the U.S. Navy as an obstacle). It caused huge damage and casualties. U.S. joined the Allies, declared war on Japan on December 8th, and the declaration of war between U.S., Germany and Italy was exchanged on December 11th. Rescuing survivors in Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor Black Christmas On the same day of Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked the British colony Hong Kong where 1975 Canadian soldiers were sent. The Allies couldn’t defend against 50000 Japanese soldiers. That day was known as the “Black Christmas”. Instead of being killed by the Japanese, the Allied soldiers were sent to POW (Prisoners of War) camps and had to work as slave laborers. Many soldiers died because of the working conditions. Royal Canadian Navy Battleship After the “Night of Broken Glasses” in 1938, Hitler began to massively murder Jews (because the Jews were one of the races that were considered as undesirable). In fall, “Operation Reinhard” was carried on, referring to murder Jews in occupied Poland. Prisoners worked to death in other concentration camps such as Auschwitz. Those who were too young, weak or old were killed by poisonous gas or shot. Many Germans didn’t know about this, and others who knew were afraid to resist. The Jews were liberated from the concentration camps after the liberation of Europe, but 6 of 9 million of Jews were killed by the end of the war. Concentration camp of Auschwitz located in Poland Dieppe Pacific In August, the British decided that the Allies would try to surprise the Germans and capture a port called Dieppe after a series of commando raids. The Canadian Army guarded Britain from 1940 to 1942, and they actually did nothing but train. The Canadian soldiers begged to be sent to Dieppe, but it turned out to be the greatest Canadian sacrifice in the war. The Allied soldiers, mostly Canadians, head off to Dieppe during the night, but they bumped into a German convoy and arrived at day break. Since the pebbles on the beach were huge and the city itself was a ravine with elevated points guarded by Germans, those soldiers were caught and slaughtered on the beach, less than half of the soldiers made it back to England. After the disaster, the Allies realized that they should have their own port instead of trying to capture a port. This led to huge success later on the D-Day. Dead Allied soldiers on the beach of Dieppe In June 1942, the U.S. destroyed most of the Japanese carriers in the Battle of Midway. Atlantic Allied crews were better trained and U-boat tracking was improved. Navy had grown, and merchant ships were able to pass the wolf packs. The Allies began to gain advantage. However, Canada Navy still lost 2000 members. N. Africa
& Italy Churchill and U.S. President Roosevelt agreed to go into Europe starting from North Africa because the Germans took hold on other European territories and North Africa was not as strongly defended. The Allies successfully took over North Africa, and the Canadian soldiers used this front to assault Sicily. On July 9-10, 500000 Allied troops including Canadians were sent to Sicily, and Sicily was liberated after fights. After the liberation of Sicily, Italians switched sides and Mussolini was killed in 1945. On Sept. 8th, Italy publicly announced the surrender of Italy to the Allies while Germans continue to fight the Allies. Later, Canadians succeeded at capturing the city of Ortona which provided the Allies a route to Rome, but lost 2000 men. Mussolini hanged Normandy Before invading Normandy, the Allies spread out a lot fake information about landing on Europe to weaken the German defense on Normandy. E.g., Calais was one of the fake spots, and Germany sent a lot troops guarding that place; Allies sent fake vessels (made of wood or cardboard) to other ports to confuse the Germans. The invasion of North Africa and Italy and Germans being stuck in middle Russia also weakened the German forces. The commander of the plan, Eisenhower, was the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe and he became President of U.S. after the war. The plan was called “Operation Overload”. In June, 2 U.S., 2 British and 1 Canadian armies landed on Normandy (Canada assigned “Juno Beach” and 30000 Canadians took part). Known as the D-Day, the invasion of Normandy was the largest amphibious attack in history. Canadian, British and U.S. forces continued to fight inland and took back many French channels and ports such as Dieppe. Allied forces fought across France in July and liberated Paris. The Battle of Scheldt provided a supply route to Antwerp (a port in Belgium) and helped the final push into Germany. By the winter of 1944, Allies had reached the German Boarder. Circled parts were major Canadian forces Liberation of Europe Liberation of Pacific Allies had a rest during the winter of 1944 and 1955. On Feb 8th, Canadians joined Rhine Offensive and drove the Germans out of Netherlands. In May, Canadians liberated Holland. Allied forces gathered in Berlin. On April 30th, Hitler committed suicide when Soviets entered Berlin. May 5th, a ceasefire was declared, and Germany surrendered on May 7th. May 8th, the Allies declared VE (Victory in Europe Day). Japanese attacked and controlled much of the Pacific, from Australia to India after Pearl Harbor. To fight against the Japanese, the U.S. used the tactic of “island hopping”. By spring, U.S. planes could reach Japan. Kamikazes (suicide attacks) were utilized to respond to U.S. cutting off resources to Japan. U.S. President Truman thought that invading Japan would be too costly, so he decided to use the atomic bombs (One of the contributors to atomic bombs, Einstein, was a Jewish who fled to U.S. from Germany in 1938). Two atomic bombs were launched and hit Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6th and August 9th, causing almost 300 thousand kills. From August 14th to September 2nd, Japan surrendered. On September 2nd, Japan signed the Treaty to end the war on the U.S. Battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay. Japanese signing the Treaty on Missouri Finally, all the Axis Powers have surrendered. WWII came to an end. After the war there were “war crimes” trials in Germany at Nuremberg and Japan. The Nuremberg Trials were held between November 1945 and October 1946. Twenty-one German leaders were executed or put into prison for crimes against humanity. The Nuremberg Trials 1947 Tribunals continued in Japan. A Japanese commander who directed Pearl Harbor was brought to trial in Japan CHC2D-9
Can Yang Zi (Sunshine) Quan After Germany surrendered on May 7th, Germany was divided up into four military zones. Berlin and the Berlin wall