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Topic 1.1.3: Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle
Transcript of Topic 1.1.3: Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle
1.1.3 - Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
7. Health, exercise, fitness and performance
Understand the terms:
1) Cardiovascular fitness
2) Muscular strength
3) Muscular endurance
5) Body composition
8. The five components of health-related fitness.
9. The six components of skill-related fitness.
Exercise improves health and develops fitness, which enhances performance in physical activities.
We are going to look at how exercise, health, fitness and performance relate to each other and how they are defined.
Health is not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.
It is a positive state of complete mental, physical, and social wellbeing.
Health can be improved by taking part in exercise as it builds up fitness levels.
Health: A state of complete mental, physical, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.
Exercise: a form of physical activity which maintains or improves health and/or physical fitness.
Even though infectious diseases have become less widespread, health problems caused by lack of exercise have increased. These conditions are called hypokinetic diseases, and include heart disease, high blood pressure and back pain. These diseases can be relieved by taking exercise.
Fitness: ability to meet the demands of the environment.
Fitness means that you are able to do whatever you want or need to do, without getting tired quickly.
There are 2 types of fitness:
1) Health-related fitness
2) Skill-related fitness
Performance: how well a task is performed.
Performance is taking part in an activity to the best of one's ability, whether it's Sunday afternoon football in the park or playing in the Premiership, playing tennis at the local club or competing at Wimbledon.
You can be fit without being healthy...
You can have a high level of fitness without necessarily being healthy...
E.g. if your body doesn't get the right nutrients through eating a balanced diet, you won't be healthy, even if you are fit through doing exercise.
How do you think fitness, exercise and health affect performance???
Think of your main/favourite sport...
Write down why health, exercise and fitness are important for that sport. How
do they all affect performance??
Exercise leads to increased fitness levels which enables you to play harder for longer in a game of hockey; therefore improving your performance.
Exercise improves health; it is an important part of a healthy lifestyle along with diet and rest. You can be fit but not healthy, e.g. you can be fit in terms of meeting the demands of the environment but be suffering from a cold due to a bad diet/lack of sleep/overtraining which would hinder your performance.
The ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time.
1) Your heart and lungs work together to keep your muscles supplied with oxygen. The harder you work your muscles, the more oxygen you need.
2) So if you have a high level of cardiovascular fitness, your body is able to supply the oxygen your muscles need during the whole body exercise for a long time.
3) Good cardiovascular fitness makes everyday activities like walking up flights of stairs a whole lot easier.
4) You use your muscles in all physical activities - which is why cardiovascular fitness is usually one of the most important components of health-related exercise.
The amount of force that a muscle can exert against a resistance.
1) Muscular strength is just how strong your muscles are...
2) It's very important in sports where you need to push of pull things using a lot of force, like weight lifting and judo.
3) In everyday life, muscle strength means you have the strength to lift shopping bags, open doors, stand up from sitting down...
4) If your muscles are strong you're also less likely to injure yourself by picking something up that's heavy.
The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired.
1) There are 2 types of muscle - involuntary and voluntary muscles. (Involuntary work without any conscious effort. Voluntary are attached to the skeleton.)
2) When your voluntary muscles have been overworked, they get tired and start to feel heavy or weak.
3) Muscular endurance is really important in any physical activity where you're using the same muscles repeatedly - e.g. in racquet sports where you have to repeatedly swing your arm.
The range of movement possible at a joint.
1) Flexibility is to do with how far your joints move. This depends on the type of joint and the 'stretchiness' of the muscles around it.
2) Flexibility is useful for any physical activity:
FEWER INJURIES - If you are flexible, you are less likely to pull or strain a muscle.
BETTER PERFORMANCE - Flexibility makes you more efficient in all sports.
BETTER POSTURE - More flexibility means a better posture and fewer aches and pains. Bad posture can lead to permanent deformity of the spine as well as impairing your breathing.
The percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle and bone.
1) If you are healthy, your body will normally be made up of between 15% and 25% body fat.
2) Having too much body fat can put strain on your muscles and joints during physical activity.
3) Many physical activities become harder to do, and the increased strain on your body means you have a higher risk of injuring yourself.
The Body Mass Index (or BMI) is a way of seeing if your weight is appropriate for your height. The actual calculation is your weight (in kilograms) divided by your height (in metres) squared but it's also easy to read on the chart. BMI can be divided into several categories and generally the higher your BMI, the greater your risk of a large range of medical problems.
BMI charts are calculated for adults only (separate charts are available for children’s weight and heights). Inaccuracies can also occur if you're an athlete or very muscular as this can give you a higher BMI even if you have a healthy level of body fat.
As BMI is based on weight and height, by losing weight you will reduce your BMI and put yourself into a lower risk group. A healthy diet, including a balance of food groups, vitamins and minerals, is essential for a long and active life. Keeping it simple, body weight and shape are a balance of energy intake (dietary calorific content) against output (calorific burn from activity & exercise).
Can you come up with a way to remember these 6?
the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body.
Agility means changing direction at speed. Running a 100m does not require agility but doing a floor work exercise in gymnastics does. Imagine a gymnast performing flic-flacs and somersaults - they need to be agile! You also need to be agile in hockey/netball/football/rugby to beat defenders.
Skill-related fitness helps people to become good at physical activity. Fitness skills can be developed and improved with practice and training.
Different sports need different skills or in many case a different combination of skills.
- is keeping the body stable while stationary, for instance doing a handstand or the tree position in yoga.
- is maintaining a controlled stable position while moving. Hammer throwing and basketball are examples of sports where dynamic balance is essential.
the ability to use two or more body parts together.
Coordination is needed for all sports!
Hand-eye coordination = serving in tennis.
Foot-eye coordination = kicking a football.
the ability to undertake strength performances quickly. Power = strength x speed
- Power is a combination of speed and strength.
- Sportsmen or women may use power to propel themselves and/or to propel an object.
- Sprinters need power to drive their bodies out of the starting blocks when the gun fires to start the race.
- Footballers take long throw-ins which need strength and speed but also power at the moment they throw in the ball.
the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of movement.
In many sports and activities, you need to have fast reactions as well as speed.
The stimulus that you respond to could be a starter gun or a pass in football.
You need to have fast reactions to be able to hit a ball or dodge a punch.
the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time.
Speed is a measure of how quickly you can do something.
This might be a measure of how quickly you can cover a distance. It could also be how quickly you carry out a movement, e.g. how quickly you can throw a punch.
To work out speed, you divide the distance covered by the time taken to do it.
E.G. of speed - 100m and how fast a hockey player can swing their arm to hit a ball.
You can be fit without