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REVOLUTIONS

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juan felipe mariño

on 8 April 2014

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Transcript of REVOLUTIONS

REVOLUTIONS
OF
1848

ORIGIN
The general context during 1848 created a disenchanting way of thinking about the Industrial Revolution and the utopia of liberalism. In fact we have a deck of nations under poverty, colonizers, tyranny, and hunger that took advantage from the international movement that came up that year. In 1848 Marx and Engels published "The Communist Manifesto" in London, this document fits perfectly with the ideas of the worker class, that was followed and later manipulated by the bourgeois.
WESTERN EUROPE
CENTRAL EUROPE
LATIN AMERICA
COLLAPSE, LEGACY, MEMORY AND CONSECUENCES
CONTEXT
During 1848 Europe was facing several new troubles that came with industrialization, such like unemployment, hunger, salubrity crisis, insecurity, overpopulated cities, etc. The Industrial Revolution consequences were added to the depressing indifference from the governors of the absolute monarchies.
BY:
Eduardo Barandiarán
Renzo Casella
Rodrigo De la Torre
Juan Felipe Mariño
JAVIER SCACCABARROZZI
IV-B
LOUIS PHILIPPE I, THE LAST KING OF FRANCE
XIX CENTURY STREET VIEW
URBAN WORKERS
The Industrialization of production brought a lot of rural areas population into the cities. The bourgeoisie didn't accept this with happiness, therefore they segregated the new immigrants making unskilled laborers toiled from 12 to 15 hours per day when they had work, living in squalid, disease-ridden slums. It was easy for Marx and other revolutionary thinkers to create a following with the inhuman conditions that lower classes suffer. Urban workers had no choice but to spend half of their income on food, which consisted of bread and potatoes. As a result of harvest failures, food prices soared and the demand for manufactured goods decreased, causing an increase in unemployment. Artisans and unemployed workers usually destroyed industrial machines when their social demands were neglected.
RURAL AREAS
Feudalism legacy was still alive in XIX century's Europe, and there were harvest shortages all around the continent. Farmers and their families were starving while the aristocrats, they lords, were focused on accumulating lands, crops and farms across their nation as their were thinking how to replace their servants with the new invntions from the Industrial Revolution
XIX CENTURY FARMING FAMILY
KARL MARX
Berlin Riots , 1848
PERSONAL OPINION
As we have discused the 1848 events in group, we have all agree that the revolutions are mostly a direct consequence of the pure capitalist though and the negligence of nobles a employers that the Industrial Revolution brought with the prosperity of economy. The 1848 Revolutions show that the Industrial Revolution not only had technological and economical consequences, it also brought a popular ask for democracy, because the worker class asked for their rights to not be abused and to be treated as people deserve in a dignal job, the bourgeoisie influenced them to eliminate the monarchical absolutism. We also extract the Revolution's social consequence, people felt poorer and cities got overpopulated, this bad situation and their hunger to rise in the society made them highly influenced by growing ideas as communism, popular liberalism and socialism. People experienced substantially changes in their lifestyle and in the European nation's idiosyncrasy, adding that the art and culture started to become purely nationalist. As a general conclusion we think that XIX century leaders and governors didn't consider the horizons that the Industrial Revolution rushed, the worker class suffered the worst treatment ever and a deep rancor between them and their employers was born as the form of contant claiming for humanitarian conditions and organizations like the syndicates. In the case of France the social discomfort finally removed the tyrannical monarchy but, like repeating the story, they uprised another dictator called Napoleon Bonaparte. Aristocracy began their downfall process to be replace by a smarter high bourgeoisie composed by rich magnates, with a great power over economy whom supported democracy.
FRANCE
ITALY
GERMAN
STATES
POLAND
denmark
hungary
NEW GRANADA
BRAZIL
COLLAPSE OF THE
REVOLUTION
LEGACY
CONSEQUENCES
WHY ENGLAND WASN'T AFFECTED
The first major outbreak came in Sicily, starting in January. The founded an independent state which lasted 16 month before the Bourbon came back, the proposal of an Italian confederations of states inspired the Kingdom of Sardinia and Milan, the most industrialized regions of Italy to rebel against the Austrian invaders and their feudalistic way of govern, this started the First Italian War of Independence.
italian troops defending venice, 1848
EPISODE OF THE FIVE DAYS OF MILAN
The "March Revolution" in German states was propelled by workers and the bourgeoisie to demand national unity, freedom of press and better conditions of life and work for the german people. The uprising rejected traditional, autocratic politics. Finally the Conservative reactionary forces defeated the liberals and forced them to exile in neighbor countries and colonies like America.
pro-nacionalist demonstration at the Reichtag
germania,
an example of nacionalist art
The "February Revolution" was sparkled by the suppressors of monarchy and nobles in charge. This revolution was drived by nationalists and republic ideals among the French general public, who believe that the people should rule themselves and must be treated well by their employers. It ended monarchy in France, by abdicating king Louis-Philippe, and led the creation of the French Second Republic.
Pledge of Allegiance in paris, 1848
riots and barricades in paris, 1848
Polish people mounted a military insurrection against Prussia in Posen, a Prussian duchy since 1815. Prussians were innovating in Central Europe by bringing inverse technology right from the British Industrial Revolution, their colonies population weren't happy about being replaced by serial production. Polish nobles also faced insurrections and masacres in the region of Galicia.
Nobles being masacred in galicia
Denmark faced the death of the king Christian VIII during an increasing of liberal and agricultural uprising. The new king, Frederick VII, met th liberals and installed a new cabinet that included prominent liberal leaders. Looking for a unified, centralized and modern nation, the king accepted a new constitution and to share power with a parliament. This national accord was just before Prussia and other German states attacked danish province of Schleswig, a region rich in raw materials, which were vital in the danish industrialization of late XIX century. finally the danish army won the four-years war in 1852.
king frederick vii
danish army arrives victoriously to coppenhaguen
on 15 of March, 1848 Hungarian patriots organized mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda, this force the Austrian governor to accept their demands. This resulted in Austrian foreign minister resigning. The Austrian emperor promised certain independence for Hungary, but this was never accomplished, that caused an Independence War. Hungarians triumph after a year an a half of fighting, but then, Tsar Nicholas I marched into Hungary with 300.000 modern-equipped troops and restore the Austrian into the power. Austria preserved Hungary until the fall of their empire
kajos kossuth holding the national flag
Revolutionaries saw themselves weaker than the reactionary forces, composed by the national and imperial armies, even the worker class lost their enthusiasm of getting human treatment in their jobs.
Popular Liberalism, Socialism and Communism were not as strong as they will be in the XX century, when they influenced a lot of nations faith across the globe.
defeat of 1848 revolution caricature
-Democrats looked to 1848 as a democratic revolution, which in the long range ensured liberty, equality and fraternity.
-For nationalists 1848 was the year of hope against tyranny and is known as the Springtime of the Peoples.
-We can compare 1848 with other revolutionary years such like 1968 and 1989.

-Feudalism was abolished by 1850 in Austrian and Prussian empires.
-European mid-class gained political and economical status.
-In the post-revolutionary decade after little had visibly changed.
-The Industrialization in the rest of Europe had an impulse by the adquisitive power of bourgeoisie.
Either they are the birthplace of the industrial abuse against workers and their people don't have as much political participation as they wanted, the UK remained peaceful during 1848. That is because the government was a step ahead and with the reform 1832 they pacified any democratic claiming. The UK worst affliction in 1848 was the constant affluent of german-speaker immigrants into their colonies.
During 1848 liberal students and intellectuals demanded the election of the General José Hilario López, he took power in 1849 and he came up with major reforms, this disturbed the Conservatives and in consequence Colombia faced 4 civil wars and more than 50 local revolutions. The conflict process of this nation delayed a relevant industrialization process for almost 90 years.
José hilario lópez
In Brazil, the "Praieira revolt", a movement in Pernambuco, lasted from November 1848 to 1852. Unresolved conflicts left over from the period of the regency and local resistance to the consolidation of the Brazilian Empire that had been proclaimed in 1822 helped to plant the seeds of the revolution. Pernambuco is a traditional fertile region of Brazil
DON PEDRO II, EMPEROR OF BRAZIL
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