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Jim Crow & Civil Rights

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by

Robert Rhodes

on 14 December 2016

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Transcript of Jim Crow & Civil Rights

Slavery Ends
&
a New Era of Discrimination Begins
Following the Civil War:
Government makes strides to right a wrong
13th Amendment
-
Ends Slavery
14th Amendment
-
Defines Citizenship
15th Amendment
-
Voting Rights

Instability, Difficulties, & Uncertainties in government leave a void in enforcing Civil Rights laws. (13th, 14th, 15th)
President Hayes ended Reconstruction
no one to help or to protect African-Americans in South
When the cat is away ...
Southern states pass laws to restrict minority rights and freedoms


Jim Crow
Drinking Fountain Comparison
Jim Crow Laws
Named after a black character ("
blackface
") in a minstrel show that stereotyped African-Americans
eventually used to describe any racist laws
1877-1960s
Anti-black laws
Mostly Southern States but also in the North
From Delaware to California, and from North Dakota to Texas, many states
15 Amendment provides voting rights to African Americans (1870)
State Restrictions
(1871-1889) Most Southern States passed laws restricting black voting rights
Many black votes were "lost", stolen, or not counted
Threats toward African American voters, including the Ku Klux Klan
1965 Voting Rights Act (Pres. LB Johnson)
Early Resistance to Jim Crow
Resistance took many forms such as individual acts of resistance & legal challenges (Plessy v. Ferguson). Two prominent African-Americans to lead resistance to Jim Crow were
Booker T. Washington
&
W.E.B. Dubois
.
Civil Rights
Jim Crow & Civil Rights
Essential Questions
1. What social, political, and economic hardships did
African-Americans face because of Jim Crow laws?
2. What forms of discrimination did African-Americans
face following the Civil War?
So ... What was the Purpose?
Majority of American states enforced segregation
Black Codes
...
legal segregation

Legal punishment for "consorting with members of another race
Most common types of laws
:
Forbade intermarriage
Adoption
Education (segregated)
Ordered business owners and public institutions to keep their black and white clientele
separated
1. List three ways these two water fountains are different.

2. When do you think this photograph was taken?
a. 1835 b. 1955 c. 1995

3. Write a sentence about how this photograph makes you feel.

4. What words come to mind when you see this picture?

_________ __________ __________ __________

Guiding Questions
1. What ways did state and local governments restrict the
freedom and rights of African-Americans?
2. What legislation helped and hurt African-Americans between
1860 and the 1960s?
3. What are Jim Crow laws?
4. What effects did Jim Crow laws have on post-Civil War
African-Americans?
5. How did the Plessy v. Ferguson case establish the idea of
"separate but equal."
6. What ways did Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Du Bois
resist the inequalities of society?
http://www.nps.gov/malu/forteachers/jim_crow_laws.htm


Roots of Prejudiced Views
Many Christian ministers and theologians taught that whites were the Chosen people, blacks were cursed to be servants, and God supported racial segregation. Craniologists, eugenicists, phrenologists, and Social Darwinists, at every educational level, buttressed the belief that blacks were innately intellectually and culturally inferior to whites. Pro-segregation politicians gave eloquent speeches on the great danger of integration: the mongrelization of the white race.

The Jim Crow system was undergirded by the following beliefs or rationalizations:
whites were superior to blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior
;
sexual relations between blacks and whites would produce a mongrel race which would destroy America
; treating blacks as equals would encourage interracial sexual unions;
any activity which suggested social equality encouraged interracial sexual relations
; if necessary,
violence must be used to keep blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy
.
Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia
Who was discriminated against?
Wasn't always as simple as white and black
What about mixed race children?
Miscegenation
Mixing of races
Laws banned marriages and relationships between blacks and whites
Jack Johnson
, the first black heavy weight champion
Johnson was convicted in 1912 of violating the Mann Act by transporting his wife-to-be across state lines before their marriage.
Adoptions
Race had to be on legal documents
if you were
1/8
black, you were 100% black
One great grand parent
Any doubt, you had to prove lineage back 3 generations (great-grandparents)
Document 1
Document 3
Document 5
Document 7
Document 9
What Rights are Restricted?

For each primary source document, you
need to identify which rights are restricted.

Choices of Restricted Rights

1.
Marriage and Family
2.
Education
3.
Accommodation
4.
Transportation
5.
Voting
Document 2
Louisiana 1918 Poll Tax Receipt
Mississippi 1939
"... no athletic team of any school shall engage in any athletic contest of any nature within the state of Virginia with another team on which persons of any other race are members."
Virginia State Law 1960
Document 4
Alabama 1931
"White and colored persons shall not be taught in the same school, but in separate schools under the same general regulations as to management, usefulness, and efficiency."
Tennessee 1873
Document 6
Florida Bus 1950s
"Interracial adoptions are forbidden by law."
Missouri State Law 1952
Document 8
"Businesses are allowed to choose their customers and have the
right to refuse service
to any person."
Mississippi State Law 1956
Declared that the legislature could never pass any law allowing "any marriage between any white person and a Negro, or descendant of a Negro."
Alabama Constitution 1901
Document 10
Texas Bus Station 1952
Literacy Test
Poll Tax
Grandfather Clause
Voting Restrictions
What stereotypes are applied to African Americans?
Jim Crow Videos
Resistance to Jim Crow
Booker T. Washington
W.E.B. Dubois
Founded Tuskegee Institute
Begin at the Bottom
Earn rights through economic
security & respect
African Americans NOT
treated equally
Worked to advance rights
Created NAACP
Act NOW
Protest for Rights
Aggressive approach
to equality
Conservative approach to equality
Get educated
Work hard & earn respect
Resistance to Discrimination
Marches
large groups of protestors took to the streets holding signs, banners, and singing songs

Sit-Ins
Sat in "white only" public places or businesses to force integration

Boycotts
don't buy products or use services of companies that discriminate

Court Case
Use Supreme Court to overturn discriminatory practices
The African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955--1968) refers to the social movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against black Americans and restoring voting rights to them. The emergence of the Black Power Movement, which lasted roughly from 1966 to 1975, enlarged the aims of the Civil Rights Movement to include racial dignity, economic and political self-sufficiency, and freedom from oppression by white Americans.
Martin Luther King, Jr.

Rosa Parks

Medgar Evers

Thurgood Marshall

Malcom X

John F. Kennedy & Lyndon Johnson

Little Rock Nine

People of the Civil Rights Movement
Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) was a Baptist minister and social activist who played a key role in the American civil rights movement from the mid-1950s until his assassination in 1968. Inspired by advocates of
nonviolence
such as Mahatma Gandhi, King sought equality for African Americans, the economically disadvantaged and victims of injustice through peaceful protest. He was the driving force behind watershed events such as the
Montgomery Bus Boycott
and the
March on Washington
, which helped bring about such landmark legislation as the
Civil Rights Act of 1964
and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. King was awarded the
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1964.


A Voice of Change
Organized Resistance
Nonviolent resistance
Achieving full equality for African Americans through nonviolence
Nonviolent protests and Legal Challenges
will bring about change
Montgomery Bus Boycott (economic strain on Montgomery & businesses)
March on Washington (200,000 to 300,000 participants)
"I Have a Dream" (vision of a future in which “this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.’”)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Civil Rights Movement
Malcolm X
"
By any means necessary.
"
— Malcolm X
Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that
white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves
and achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a
state of their own, separate from one inhabited by white people
. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname "X" (He considered "Little" a slave name and chose the "X" to signify his lost tribal name.).

Views Change
Following a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm said he had met "blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers." He returned to the United States with a
new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future
. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races.

After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile.

On February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range.
Little Rock Nine
Plessy v. Ferguson

established "
Separate but Equal
"

Brown v. Board of Education
Segregation in schools is illegal

The
Little Rock Nine
, as the teens came to be known,
were black students who sought to attend Little Rock Central High School in the fall of 1957
. Three years later, states in the South finally began to face the reality of federally mandated integration.
In 1964, President Lyndon Johnson declared a "war on poverty." He challenged Americans to build a "
Great Society
" that eliminated the troubles of the poor.
Civil Rights Act
(1964)
Civil Rights Act
banned discrimination based on race and gender in employment and ending segregation in all public facilities
.
Voting Rights Act

Banned literacy tests and other discriminatory methods of denying suffrage to African Americans.
The Great Society
Economic Opportunity Act
(1964)
Attacking the roots of American poverty.
Job Corps
was established to provide valuable vocational training.
Head Start
Preschool program designed to help disadvantaged students arrive at kindergarten ready to learn was put into place.
Volunteers In Service to America
(VISTA)
Schools in impoverished American regions would now receive volunteer teaching attention.
Federal funds were sent to struggling communities to attack unemployment and illiteracy.
The New Frontier
Committee on Equal Employment opportunity
(CEEO)
Helped to put an end to segregation and discriminatory employment practices (such as only employing African-Americans for low-skilled jobs) in a number of workplaces across the United States.
Discrimination in public housing was prohibited.

Interstate Commerce Commission

Made Jim Crow illegal in interstate transportation

Employment of African-Americans in federal jobs such as in the Post office, the Navy, and the Veterans Administration as a result of the Kennedy Administration’s affirmative action policies.

The Kennedy Administration forbade government contractors from discriminating against any applicant or employee for employment on the grounds of national origin, color, creed, or race.
Full transcript