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Piaget and Vygotsky ETEC 562

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Elsa Cardenas

on 13 March 2016

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Transcript of Piaget and Vygotsky ETEC 562

Piaget and Vygotsky
Melissa Smith, Elsa Cardenas,
Annika Poindexter, Nakeisha Jackson

Activity -
Formal Operational

Activity -
Teachers can use Piaget’s theory of cognitive development:
Students will pair up in groups of four and discuss what they think about “Child Immigration.” They will look at the following images and choose what side they are for or against. Students will then think critically on how they can make a difference in the country, with the side they chose.
• Cognitive development hinges on social interaction and the development of language children’s self-directed talk in guiding and monitoring thinking and problem solving.

• Emphasizes the significant role played by adults and more able peers in children’s learning. This adult assistance provides early support while students build the understanding necessary to solve problems on their own later

1. Provide challenging situations where students are able to develop their own thinking skills under the guidance and direction of the teacher as well as peers. Vygotsky refers to this as scaffolding.

2. Scaffolding can be used in planning instruction, groups, tasks and so on within the class/classroom.

3. When students are given the opportunity to work with others they should be able to communicate within their group using their language in organizing thinking.

This strategy encourages the learner to “think-aloud” their cognitive process of the task/assignment given to them such as reading, problem solving, or a question asked. This concept is very good for a foreign language class. Students are unfamiliar with many phrases in the target language and by “thinking out loud” how they will arrive to answer a question or read text they can reflect on what is difficult or not.
1. To understand students’
thinking process
2. To match instructional strategies to students’ abilities
3. To foster students’ cognitive development in general

Teachers can use Vygotsky’s theory:
Piaget’s Learning Theory:
more universal in thought;
People make sense of things around them
by their direct contact and experience
with items such as the people, objects,
and ideas.
Four levels of learning:
1. Sensorimotor: children from birth to 2 explore the world through their senses and motor activity
and will begin to the early stages of comprehension.

2. Preoperational: this stage typically covers children ages 2 through 7, here is where they begin to use symbolic thinking, logical operations and clearly do not understand alternative endings.

3. Concrete-operational: between the ages of 7 to 12 children begin to think logically; demonstrate conservation, reversibility, classification, and serration.

4. Formal-operational: beginning around the age of 12 children are performing hypothetical/deductive reasoning, coordinate/understand variables, and imagine other places/outcomes

Instructional Design:
more social in thought;
Saettler, P. (1990). A Technology Of Instruction According To Skinner. The Evolution Of American Educational Technology.
Englewood, CO, Libraries Unlimited.

Mcleod, S. A. (2007).
Lev Vygotsky.
Retrieved From: http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html

Social Development Theory (Vygotsky),
Posted In Constructive Theories, Social Learning Theories.
Retrieved from: http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html

Charters, Elizabeth (2003). The Use Of Think-aloud Methods In Qualitative research An Introduction To Think-aloud Methods.
Brock Education. Seneca College Of Applied Arts and Technology.
12(2) 68-82

McLeod, S. A. (2008).
Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/bruner.html

Picture of Jerome Bruner courtesy of:

Quote from Jerome Bruner:

The goal of his theory is to see how children from birth to child grow and are able to use reasoning and thinking to form hypotheses.
Three Basic Components to Piaget’s Cognitive Theory
building blocks of knowledge
The Four Processes that enable transition from one stage to another assimilation, accommodation, disequilibrium, equilibration
The Four Stages of Cognitive Development:
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and
Formal Operational
His theory focuses on the fact that development comes after social interaction.
The process of cognitive development is greatly enhanced by social interaction.
The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). This is referred to someone who has a higher ability level than the learner in regards to a specific task or objective.
The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). This is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task with the help of an adult or peer collaboration, and the student’s ability to solve problems on his or her own. This is the level known for when learning takes place.
Three major points of Vygotsky’s Theory:
Mi nombre es Miguelito. Soy un nino de 9 anos y vivo en Mexico. Me gusta comer mucho tacos y tomar soda. Tengo una computadora y telefono para jugar mis video juegos favoritos.

I can picture a boy eating tacos
Could this mean computer in English
This is like telephone in English but with a "f" in Spanish
This reminds me of soda in English
What a Think-Aloud looks like:
I think this is about a boy

Vygosky’s wanted the learner to verbalize their thought process so they can be engaged in the task/assignment. The Think-Aloud, allows the learner to speak out load what they are thinking as they read the text in Spanish. The learner not only verbalizes their cognitive process but remains engaged in the learning process and makes connections with cognate words. The teacher provides guidance with the stem sentence to assist the learner to verbalize thought, reading and comprehension.
During the formal operational stage the learner can draw conclusions based on forming a hypothesis. Student’s are able to problem solve at this stage but may not be able to apply reasoning well to real life situations.
Summary of the learning theory
One example of an activity using the learning theory
Key elements of the learning theory
Comparison and contrast with at least one other learning theory
Piaget & Bruner
Children are actively participating in on learning & Cognitive Development includes the use of symbols.

Importance of the role of social exchanges between child & adult.
Cognitive development is the result of Language acquisition.
Learning can happen at a greater pace than previous suggested.
Learning is on going.

Concerned with children rather than all learners.
Focused on development rather than learning
Cognitive development result of biological/environment experience .
believed in readiness

“Education must be not only be a transmission of culture, but also a provider of alternative views of the world and a strengthener of the will to explore them.” Jerome Bruner
“Education must be not only be a transmission of culture, but also a provider of alternative views of the world and a strengthener of the will to explore them.” Jerome Bruner
Like Piaget, Bruner believed that cognitive development came in a process, but with the assistance of the world around them.
Scaffolding-temporary support to help student understand new ideas.

3 Modes of Representations:
Enactive (0-1yr.)-remembering by feeling.
Iconic (1-6 yrs.)-thinking based on mental images
Symbolic (7 and up)-using words, numbers, and music to convey thoughts, more specifically when language is acquired.

Spiral curriculum-ideals can be presented at any age as long as child/student is coached with the right mode of representation.

"The current state of knowledge is a moment in history, changing just as rapidly the state of knowledge in the past has ever changed and in my instances, more rapidly" Jean Piaget
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