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Copy of Trans-Alaska Pipeline
Transcript of Copy of Trans-Alaska Pipeline
-produces about 171 billion dollars for the U.S.A.
-jobs are provided while making the pipeline organic matter cycles -disturbing wildlife (life cycles such as seed to germination to vegetative to growth to flowering)
-it takes a long time to decompose because of permafrost (permanently frozen ground)
- Long term affects on animals, plants and humans 1) If there is an oil spill it will go into the water. The fish will eventually breathe it in. Then humans will fish for the polluted fish and get cancer which is one long term affect for humans. Five Basic Needs Food: The Polar bear main diet is mostly eating mostly ringed and bearded seals but they also eat beluga whales and various plants Air : The Polar bears breathe the air in the artic. Water: The Polar bears water source comes from the Pacific Ocean because they live on the coast of Alaska Sunlight: The Polar bears get sunlight from the occasional daylight sun Shelter: The polar bears make a cave in the snow or put snow on themselves for shelter Five Basic Needs #2 Food: The Arctic Fox mostly eats lemmings but it still eats voles, hares and eggs from various birds. they also eat plants like seaweed and berries. Water: The Arctic fox gets his water source from the Pacific Ocean Sunlight: It gets his sunlight from the daylight sun in Alaska Shelter: They have dens underground for a household of foxes to live in Air: They get their air from the arctic air in Alaska. Environmental Impacts 2) Another environmental impact will be habitat loss through the construction of the pipeline because it goes through animals hibernation routes and goes through animals homes. 3) In order to make the pipeline they had to cut down a lot of trees and take out the grass from the ground which is an environmental impact. 2) Another long term affect is if the pipeline gets in the way of the animals migration route it will create a lot of problems because they have been going on that route for years and then they have to change it which is pretty hard for animals to do. 3) The pipeline will take huge amounts of space for plantlife in Alaska because this big figure is digging up all the soil to make the pipeline. It will also create less food source for hebivores like the hare. The Purpose, Form and Function Purpose: The purpose of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline is to transport oil
from Prudhoe Bay to the harbour at Valdez, which is 800 miles south. It is also to provide the safest way to transport oil after exploring other options such as by sea, air and submarine.
Form: The Trans-Alaska pipeline has a diameter of 122 centimeters, and the pipe is a steel tube that is 1/2 an inch thick. The pipeline was built in a zig-zag motion so that the pipeline can expand.
Function: The function of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline is to transport oil from one of several oil fields. Pump stations were set up to pump oil into the pipeline. Food Pyramids The pipeline goes through rivers and different bodies of water, which means that if there is a leak, the water can kill animals and effect the food chain because if the population of one type of animal drops, the predators wont have as much food to eat and their population might drop as well. Important info about the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. *The pipeline started building in March 27, 1975 and was finished May 31, 1977. (Building time: 3 years, 2 months.) *The Trans-Alaska pipeline ends at the Valdez Marine Terminal. *42 gallons of oil is in one barrel. *Each year it costs 210 millions of dollars to run the pipeline. *In total to build the pipeline it costed 8 billion dollars. *The pipeline is often called "TAPS" . It is an acronym for the Trans Alaska Pipeline System. *The total length of the TAPS 800 miles long. *In one hour 88,000 barrels of oil go through the pipeline. *The pipeline can hold 9.04 million barrels of oil when it is full. *There are 11 pump stations along the pipeline. (Pump stations are people in little buildings that help to make sure the oil flows and don't spill.) *It costs 210 millions of dollars to run the pipeline each year. Important info about the Trans-Alaska Pipeline PT.2 *The Air temperature along the route is -80 F to -95 F. *The TAPS is shielded by 3 separate leak detection systems that are watched carefully at the Operations Control Center in Anchorage. *The pipeline crosses three mountain ranges and over 30 major rivers and streams. * A mechanical device that is pushed through the pipeline by the oil to carry out various operations on the pipeline without preventing the flow of oil is called a "Pig". * The Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope in 1968 is where the oil was first founded. *Along the pipeline there are over 124,000 heat pipes along the pipeline. The pipes transfer ground heat into the air to guarantee soil remains stable and able to hold up the pipeline. *The thickness of the pipeline wall is 462 inches (466 miles) and 562 inches (334 miles). *The TAPS crosses the ranges of the Central Arctic heard on the North Slope and the Nelchina Herd in the Copper River Basin. Important info about the Trans-Alaska Pipeline PT.3 Pictures & Diagrams There are only 11 PS's now because they found out the 12th was not needed How does the Trans-Alaska pipeline benefit the environment? *Cleaning pigs brush off the pipe of built up wax, water or other solids that hurry out of the oil stream. They also stop the built-up of harming the environment and makes the oil easier to pump. * The TAPS is better than other methods of transporting Northern Alaskan oil. If a system of roads were built to transport the oil, road pollutants would cause plants to be more exposed to pest attacks. *The Alaskan Pipeline only transports oil , therefore it safeguards against the extraction of metals, agricultural products, and other natural resources that could be developed. * This untapped expanse of land can be maintained because the oil is transported without roads, and this system does not plan for further removal of other natural resources in the area. * In the end, the little environmental troubles caused by the current route of the Alaskan Pipeline are minimal compared to the potential problems of another road, rail, and water routes. *The Alaskan Pipeline has many different types of environment , like tundra and permafrost near Prudhoe Bay to spruce forests near the South. *The environment around the TAPS is in somewhat good condition. Since there are no endangered or threatened plants along the pipeline. * Pipelines are one of the most economically skilled ways to transport oil and probably the most environmentally friendly method that we use today. How does the Trans-Alaska pipeline benefit the environment? PT.2