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Transcript of Japan
Brooke, Cassidy, Emma S., Percy
Major Historical Events
Japan was unstable at the time making society easier to penetrate
Eager to gain new knowledge & trade silver for European firearms and ships
Portuguese Jesuits & Spanish Franciscan missionaries
Jesuits focused on converting the leaders in society (Daimyo & Samurai)
Franciscan focused on the lower classes
The First Christian Converts
Captain Jorge Alvares took some Japanese to Goa (in India) to become the first Christian converts
Baptized by missionary St. Francis Xavier
Xavier then traveled to Japan to baptize many more
Battle of Sekigahara (1600's)
Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu
After the Battle of Sekigahara, Ieyasu united Japan & brought the country an era of peace & order
Expelled foreigners: crucified many Christian converts who rebelled in 1638
no foreigner allowed to live on Japanese soil
Began Japan's seclusion policy & remained isolates for the next 250 years
Japan's Attitude Toward Europeans
European's View of the Japanese
Alvares wrote about Japan with enthusiasm- beauty of the country, abundance of exotic plants and fruit
Jesuit Francis saw sterling qualities of discipline and courage.
Found Japanese friendly, civilized and eager to acquire European knowledge.
Jesuits focused on the leaders of society, believing that converting the lower classes would be wasted effort if anti-Christian authority was installed.
Franciscans focused on converting lower classes
In 1635 there was a Exclusion Edict:
-Japan was to keep to their own boundaries, anyone who attempted to leave was to be put to death.
- Catholicism was forbidden. Anyone practicing it would be subjected to an investigation. Those associated with Catholicism would be punished.
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"Japan 1600's Timeline." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2014 <http://www.pbs.org/empires/japan/timeline_1600.html>.
"Japan: Religious Diversity into the 1600s." Japan: Religious Diversity into the 1600s. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2014.< http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/japanreligion1600s.htm>.
Meyer, Milton Walter. Japan: a concise history. 4th ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009. Print.
Pictorial encyclopedia of Japanese culture: the soul and heritage of Japan.. Tokyo: Gakken ;, 1987. Print.
"The Jesuits in Japan." The Jesuits in Japan. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2014. <http://www.reformation.org/jesuits-in-japan.html>.
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Turnbull, Stephen R.. Samurai: the world of the warrior. Oxford: Osprey, 2003. Print.
Legacy: The West and the World. Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd., 2002. Print.
Notehelfer, Fred. "The Arrival of the Europeans." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 6 Aug. 2014. Web. 17 Oct. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/300531/Japan/23159/The-arrival-of-the-Europeans>.
Death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, head leader of Japan
Shogun Tokuagawa Ieyasu & Ishida Mitsunari are both to be in control
Ieyasu began to assume total power
Ishida challenged him
Armies of both sides went to war
Ishida defeated & executed
The Portuguese ship "San Felipe" shipwrecked in Japanese shores.
Spanish captain on board the ship told Hideyoshi of the Spanish empire and its greatness.
Hideyoshi recognized pattern of Spanish conquerors and saw the missionaries as the first step of an invasion.
Restrictions began to be put on missionaries on what they could and couldn't preach.
Soon those who converted to Christianity loyalty to Japan was questioned.
Hideyoshi ordered crucifixion of 9 Jesuit missionaries and 17 converts.
This was only the first of the Christian persecution in Japan.
Japanese first received the clerics well. Eager for contact with Western World.
Impressed with the firearms and luxury goods brought over by Europeans, as well as the cultural aspects of Christianity.
Received new knowledge (guns) revolutionized warfare
Hideyoshi suspicious that European's were planning a political conquest, irritated his authority was ignored.
Hostility towards Europeans. Death penalties, forbidden Catholicism, trade restriction.
Reasons for Seclusion
Japanese leaders were concerned that Jesuits would build and develop a European settlement, eventually conquering Japan.
Wanted to maintain independence and stability.
Samurai and Shoguns
Samurai translates into “those who serve”.
The Shogun acted as a general and leader of the Samurai, they swore fealty a loyalty to the Emperor.
Samurai was an elite military class. Men and women could become Samurai alike, if they showed potential.
In the 1300's-1400's the Samurai became an official military.
Feudal system (Emperor, court nobles, shogun, diamyo, lords, peasants (80%)).
Difficult to change social class.
40% of men and 10% of women were literate.
Lots of debt since the samurai were forbidden from farming or doing business (awesome) and were allowed to borrow money.
Rise of Arts
Geishas, sumo wrestlers, actors, musicians and artists became major contributors to entertainment and culture.
Ukiyo-e art form.
Peasants (mostly Christian converts) rebelled against their lord Matsukura Shigeharu.
Very high taxes.
The shogunate forces beheaded an estimated 37,000 rebels and sympathizers.
Amakusa Shiro's head was taken to Nagasaki and Hara fortress (where the rebels were hiding) was destroyed.