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Teaching Reading Methodologies
Transcript of Teaching Reading Methodologies
* Over time, a child develops a sophisticated understanding of the world of language as they add to their existing schema – symbolic structures and concepts for words The Dimensional Approaches for Vocabulary Building:
To assist the learners through their development of more sophisticated grasp of the world and language, teachers need to initiate and facilitate experiential interaction. The Dimensional Approaches for Vocabulary Building Ideal practices/allow the students to:
Experience things (ie. Sharing, hands-on classroom experiences, read books)
Name things (new words, words of the day)
Show words (label objects/instructional materials, display lists (days of the week, months, colors, etc.)—“show, not tell”
Write words (personal dictionaries, word file, English word notebook) On Semantic mapping…
Semantic maps – diagrams that help learners see how words relate to one another
"Semantic mapping is basically the effort of the teacher to activate the learner’s schema by appealing to what is considered familiar or already present to the vocabulary to incorporate new words, meanings and word use and concepts.”
Johnson and Pearson’s suggested steps to semantic mapping:
1. Choose keyword
2. Write or put the word at the middle of the chalkboard
3. Brainstorm for words related to the chosen keyword (word associations)
4. Label the categories that emerge
5. Discuss the words and their relationships and their meanings Semantic Webbing
4 Components of a semantic map:
Core question – Purpose of the inquiry. All the information and ideas generated for the web by the pupils are related to the core question
Web strands – answers which learners give the core question
Strand supports – facts, inferences and generalizations that learners take from the story to clarify and validate the strands and differentiate them from one another
Strand ties – how the strands relate to one another
This results to a semantic web, which visually illustrates the categories and relationships generated from a core question, wherein both the teacher and the learner expand their roles in the lesson by extending and elaborating their meaning. The Dimensional Approaches In Teaching Reading -learning is best from the easiest to the most difficult (reading the story comprehension check up through questions)---“peeling through the layers”
Dimensional Ordinary Approach – asking questions starting from the simplest to the most complex
Dimensional Intensive Approach – designed to aid slow learners. Asking questions starting from the simplest to the most complex, in which answers are provided to aid the slow learners DIMENSION---READING SKILLS TAPPED
First dimension (Literal Comprehension): appeals to literal understanding of the story (who, what, when, where)—“reading the lines”
Ex:Who are the characters in the story?When did the story happen?
Second dimension (Interpretation): questions involve interpretation or reasoning (how and why questions)---“reading between the lines”
Why did the grasshopper ask the ant for a morsel of food?Do you think the ant and the grasshopper are friends?
Third dimension (Critical Evaluation): questions that involve critical evaluations or critical reading, which allow the students to evaluate, comment and make judgments (insights) about certain aspects of the story---“ reading beyond the lines”
Do you agree with the author…?Does the title suit the story?Fourth dimension (Application/Integration)
If you were the ant, what would you have done?Who among the two characters do you like best, the ant or the grasshopper? Why? The Gradual Psychological Unfolding Approach (GPU) -developed and experimented by Manhit at the University of the Philippines, Diliman
Manhit believes that learners should be given the opportunity to savor the joy and thrill of the story by unfolding it to them bit by bit or gradually. This can be done through a manner of sequenced questioning Steps:
1. Motivation question: must be within the experiential background of the learner, but of little bearing to the story that is about to be discussed (no spoilers please)
2. Unlocking difficulties. Make use of situational difficulties from the learners’ answers to the motivation questions.
3. Presentation of the story. Introduction.
4. Silent reading of the story. Learners read the story silently--on their own.
5. Asking the motive question. Asking something about the little part of the story. This is often regarded as the first question about the story (motive question triggers first question, then the first question triggers the second question)
6. Asking questions in sequential order bit by bit and gradually until the whole story is unfolded to the children, giving them the opportunity to savor the joy and thrill of the story. Storytelling:
Teachers need to be skillful storytellers.
Cox recommends these steps:
1. Finding stories
2. Starting a storytelling file
3. Telling Stories
5. Costumes Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) Encourages active involvement with the text being read—no need for prepared questions in the teacher’s manual, as a variation for the carefully scripted Directed Reading Activity (DRA)
-introduction of the selection-asking for predictions about the story
-asking what learners know about the subject in the story
-direct children to read the story and verify their predictions
-ask: What will happen next?
3. Post reading:
-discuss verifications of student’s ideas and predictions
-encourage children to find and read sections that prove or disprove predictions-encourage discussions on those predictions (inferencing) Reading Aloud “The benefits of reading aloud is well established” - Sulzby
Benefits of reading stories to your child:
-Eagerness to read-Success in beginning reading in school
“Teachers should read stories aloud every day to both younger and older studies.” How is it done?
1. The art of listening is an acquired one and is must be taught and cultivated gradually.
2. Vary the length and subject mater of reading.
3. Follow through with readings. Be consistent in your reading routine. Do not leave the class dangling for several days in between reading chapters to sustain learner’s interest.
4. Stop at a suspended spot each day.
5. If stories have pictures, make sure that the students or learners can see the pictures clearly.
6. After reading, allow time for discussion and verbal, written or artistic expressions.
7. Don’t turn discussions into quizzes.
8. Use plenty of expressions (be an animated reader), and read slowly.
9. Preview books before reading them in class.
10. Bring the author to life by adding third dimension:
***Third dimension (Critical Evaluation): questions that involve critical evaluations or critical reading, which allow the students to evaluate, comment and make judgments (insights) about certain aspects of the story---“ reading beyond the lines” How to select materials for read aloud books:
1. Look for stories with fast-paced plot to easily hook children’s attention.
2. Look for stories with clear, well-rounded characters.
3. Look for stories with crisp, easy to read dialogue
4. Look for minimal long, descriptive passages Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) -is based on the constructivist idea that children learn to do things by doing them (experiential/incidental learning).
-SSR means a period of uninterrupted reading of self-selected books and other reading materials in the classroom.
-Other acronyms used to refer to SSR is USSR(uninterrupted sustained silent reading) and DEAR(drop everything and read)
Crawford provided sample steps in introducing SSR in her first-grade classroom:
1. Provide varied reading materials.
2. Introduce books to the whole class.
3. Introduce approach.
4. All select books.
5. All read silently.
6. Share books. Language Experience Approach (LEA) Teaching approaches that integrate the four skills of language learning:
***These approaches are otherwise known as Language Experience Approach (LEA) Steps:
1. Use experiences to develop language.
2. Build vocabulary.
3. Children compose and teacher records on chart paper.
4. Children read the language experience chart.
5. Integrate skills.
6. Publish. Dialogical Thinking Reading Lesson (D-TRL) D-TRL
-Developed by Michelle Coomeyras, an Assistant Professor at the University of Georgia and an investigator at the National Reading Research Center
-This method infuses critical thinking reading lesson format.
-The goal of this method is to engage learners into a reasonable reflective thinking in order to decide what they believe about a story-specific issue
-Encourages learners to return to the text to verify or clarify information, to consider multiple interpretations, and evaluate acceptability and relevance of competing or alternative interpretations.
-May be modified to accommodate the differing needs and abilities of the pupils/learners. 2 Phases of D-TRL:
The reading phase. Story must be read and discussed. Stories must be seen in more than one perspective so that learners will find them significant and intriguing.
The discussion phase. This may consume most of the time in teaching reading. Get the pupils to evaluate the truth and relevance of the reasons for studying a reading material. If the teacher initially filters these reasons, the pupils will be denied the opportunity to evaluate their own thinking.
***Drawing conclusions. At the end of D-TRL, students must be able to answer central questions, given all the thinking they have done on the topic.
***In the research done by Commeyras, the pupils were more successful when they could pool their reasoning abilities to make judgment about the validity of reasons offered to support two competing conclusions for a central story issue. The Fan Technique -introduced by Swaby in 1984, this method emerged from the semantic webbing procedure.
-Is a visual strategy.
-Creation of web of events of the story. Phono-Visual-RAP PVM- phonovisual method
1. hear, see, say stage
2. sound blending stage
3. blending stage
*** Focuses/emphasizes on the enunciation of words as well as acquisition of meaning through functional applications of words and phrases read.