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Biology Chapter 12 Section 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book

Mark Meredith

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Biology Chapter 12 Section 3 RNA and Protein Synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis The Biology Central Dogma The Universal Genetic Code A region of a DNA molecule that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA is the
codon. The nucleic acid responsible for bringing individual amino acids to the ribosome is
transfer RNA.
messenger RNA.
ribosomal RNA. A base that is present in RNA but NOT in DNA is
adenine. The role of a master plan in a building is similar to the role of which molecule?
messenger RNA
transfer RNA
ribosomal RNA A codon consists of three consecutive nucleotides on mRNA that specify a particular amino acid. The Genetic Code The genetic code is universal in all Earth's organisms.

The code is the “language” of mRNA instructions.

The code is written using four
“letters” (the bases: A, U, C, and G). The Genetic Code RNA Processing Some DNA within a gene is not needed to produce a protein. These areas are called introns.

The DNA sequences that code for proteins are called exons. DNA is copied in the form of RNA

This first process is called transcription.

The process begins at a section of a gene called a promoter. Transcription During protein construction, transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers each amino acid to the ribosome. Types of RNA Ribosomes are made up of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Types of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries copies of instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins. Types of RNA There are three main differences between RNA and DNA:

The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose.
RNA is generally single-stranded.
RNA contains uracil in place of thymine. The Structure of RNA Genes are sections of DNA that code for the production of proteins.

RNA is a single-stranded copy of that coded information for making proteins. RNA and Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis Translation The introns are cut out of RNA molecules.

The exons are the spliced together to form mRNA. RNA Processing There are three main types of RNA:
messenger RNA
ribosomal RNA
transfer RNA Types of RNA Translation is the decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain (protein).

Translation takes place on ribosomes.
During translation, the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins. Translation 5¢ 5¢ 3¢ Amino acid Protein TRANSLATION mRNA Codon TRANSCRIPTION 3¢ DNA strand
(template) DNA
molecule Protein Synthesis RNA and Protein Synthesis A codon typically carries sufficient information to specify a(an)
single base pair in RNA.
single amino acid.
entire protein.
single base pair in DNA. Genes and Proteins Transcription The process continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon. Translation The ribosome binds new tRNA molecules and amino acids as it moves along the mRNA. Start codon Ribosome Methionine Phenylalanine tRNA Lysine Translation Where are ribosomes made? How does this process differ in location between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? Exons are "expressed"

Introns are "in between" Finishing touches include a cap and a tail. Codes for methionine Codes for asparagine Be sure you
know how to
use this tool. mRNA Stop codon Can you name the processes? ? ? Then Now
Full transcript