Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Investigating Moral Development Theories: Kohlberg and Rest

No description
by

Jennifer Backoff

on 8 October 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Investigating Moral Development Theories: Kohlberg and Rest

Part 1
Who is Kohlberg?
Kohlberg's Theory
Critique of Kohlberg

Part 2
Who is Rest?
Rest's Theory
Critique of Rest

Part 3
Comparison of Kohlberg and Rest
Investigating Moral Development Theories: Kohlberg and Rest
Kohlberg’s Theory of
Moral Development
Lack of supporting evidence
No flexibility to regress
Western-centric
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927 – 1987)
Earned Bachelor’s and Ph.D degrees from the University of Chicago
Wrote about his stages of moral development in his dissertation (1958)
Influenced by Jean Piaget’s work on children’s moral development
Served in the Marine Corps during World War II, and helped to smuggle Jewish refugees out of Palestine
Rest's Schemas
Kohlberg’s Theory of
Moral Development (cont.)
Level 2 – Conventional
Individuals identify with rules and expectations of others

Stage 3 – Interpersonally Normative Morality
Right = meeting expectations of close ones and carrying out social roles
Decisions and Actions --> maintaining good image and gaining approval from others

Stage 4 – Social System Morality
Right = upholding the established laws and carrying out agreed upon duties
Decisions and Actions --> maintain the system and fulfills societal obligations
Overview
Part 1
Who is Kohlberg?
Kohlberg's Theory
Critique of Kohlberg

Part 2
Who is Rest?
Rest's Theory
Critique of Rest

Part 3
Comparison of Kohlberg and Rest
Level 1 – Preconventional
Expectations and perspective are individually focused

Stage 1 – Heteronomous Morality
Right = obeying rules to avoid punishment, and refrain from physically hurting others
Decisions and Actions --> justified by avoidance of punishment and authority of others

Stage 2 – Individualistic, Instrumental Morality
Right = what is fair, equal, based on an arrangement
Decisions and Actions --> ensure satisfaction of own needs while minimizing negative consequences to self
Kohlberg’s Theory of
Moral Development (cont.)
Level 3 – Postconventional or Principled
Individuals separate themselves from rules and expectations of others, and base their decisions on self-chose principles

Stage 5 – Human Rights and Social Welfare Morality
Right = evaluate based on the promotion of fundamental human rights and values
Decisions and Actions --> social contracts and agreements that promote welfare of all

Stage 6 – Morality of Universalizable, Reversible, and Prescriptive General Ethical Principles
Right = consideration of all points of view
Decisions and Actions --> universal and generalizable principles that apply in all situations
Critiques of Kohlberg's Theory
James Rest (1941-1999)
Served as professor at University of Minnesota (starting in 1970)
Researched actively throughout the 1980s
Studied moral development because his father served his parish without abandoning his own moral principles
Developed:
Defining Issues Test (DIT); 1970s
Four component model; 1980
Center for the Study of Ethical Development; 1982
Overview
Woohoo!
Time for Part 2!
Like Kohlberg, still western-centric
Personal Interest Schema "is no longer paramount by the time one acquires the reading level of a twelve year old." Any exceptions? Where is the flexibility?
Critiques of Rest's Theory
Part 1
Who was Kohlberg?
Kohlberg's Theory
Critique of Kohlberg

Part 2
Who was Rest?
Rest's Theory
Critique of Rest

Part 3
Comparison of Kohlberg and Rest
Overview
Finally!
On to Part 3!
Neo-Kohlbergian Approach
Defining Issues Test (DIT)
4 components
moral sensitivity
moral judgment
moral motivation
moral character
Broad framework for analyzing moral development
Accounts for structure and societal systems
“Shifting distributions rather than a staircase”
Part 1
Who was Kohlberg?
Kohlberg's Theory
Critique of Kohlberg

Part 2
Who was Rest?
Rest's Theory
Critique of Rest

Part 3
Comparison of Kohlberg and Rest
Overview
Let's have some fun!
Time for Part 1!
Kohlberg’s Theory of
Moral Development
Level 1 – Preconventional
Stage 1:
Heteronomous Morality
Stage 2:
Individualistic, Instrumental Morality
Level 2 – Conventional
Stage 3:
Interpersonally Normative Morality
Stage 4:
Social System Morality
Level 3 – Postconventional/Principled
Stage 5:
Human Rights and Social Welfare Morality
Stage 6:
Morality of Universalizable, Reversible, and Prescriptive General Ethical Principles

The stages justify an individual’s behavior, not how moral they are.
Six stages grouped into three levels
Consecutive steps
One-at-a-time
Each stage requires the same cognitive domains
General structures
Social perspective taking
Cognitive- developmental models
Similar theory content
Three schemas based on Kohlberg’s stages
One can be in multiple stages at the same time
Did not assume the same considerations would be addressed at each stage
Kohlberg
Rest
Kohlberg versus Rest
Sources
Evans, N., Forney, D., Guido, F., Patton, L., and Renn, K. (2010).
Student Development in College
. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Her, L. (1999, July 20). Obituaries: James R. Rest, 58, professor. StarTribune. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from http://www.startribune.com/obituaries/11595546.html

Johnson, C. E. (2012).
Ethical Decision Making and Action.
Organizational ethics: a practical approach (2nd ed., pp. 59-86). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications.

Rest, J. R., Narvaez, D., Thoma, S. J., & Bebeau, M. J. (2000). A neo-Kohlbergian approach to morality research. Journal of moral education, 29(4), 381-395.

Walsh, C. (2000). The Life And Legacy Of Lawrence Kohlberg.
Society
, 37(2), 36-41.
Where Kohlberg's theory was perhaps too narrow, Rest's has been criticized for being too broad and far-reaching.
Full transcript