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AP World History-REVIEW

A review of the entire world's history (8000 BCE to Present)
by

Sage Davis

on 12 May 2011

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Transcript of AP World History-REVIEW

World History 8000 BCE to 600 CE 600 CE to 1450 CE 1450 CE to 1750 CE 1750 CE to 1914 CE 1914 CE to Present 4 Ancient Civilizations Classical
Civilizations. Mesopotamia Egypt China India Located between the Tigris and Eupretes Rivers
-Unpredicable flooding
-Negative veiw on Gods and flooding
Sumer, Babylon, Assaryians
-agressive
-composed of city states
These fall due to Kassites and Hitties
-formed the Persian Empire
Developed the wheel, calculous, weapons, writing, cuneform. Located on the Nile
-Predicable flooding, positive veiw on gods
Old, Middle and New Kingdoms
-Strongest in New Kingdom
Hyroglyphics, Pyramids,
Theocratic monarch (pharoh rules)
-Polytheistic
Defined social classes
falls:too big to govern Caste System
-goes from flexible to rigid
-skin color dominated (as well as position in political system)
Hinduism
-Aryans started it (aryans eventually took over)
-dharma laws determined your varna
-karma determined how you were reincarnated
Strong central government
Confusianism
Mandate of Heaven
-Chinese emporors recieve power to rule from Gods
Patriarichal
Polytheistic
Isolated
Decentralized Classical China Classical India Greece Rome Persians Cultural Diffusion
-huge empire ment lots of interactions
Alexander the Great
-Persian Wars (between Greeks and Persians)
-Alexander the Great won over the Persian Empire
Practiced Zoroastrianism
Political status determines social status
-Government officials on top
Leaders
-Cyrus (founder of dynasty)
-Xerxes (dismantled Persian Empires)
-Darius (ruled the Indus) (beuracracy)
Trade & Agriculture Changed from Republic(democracy with representatives)
to Empire(Empror)
Perfected roads
Fall of Rome (476 CE)
-disease
-too big to control
-power struggles (new emporor about every 2 years)
-capitals split into Rome and Constantinopal
-becomes suseptable to invasions Silk Roads Served as a way to connect all the empires
-conduit for political, social, cultural and economic diffusion
Sea and land based
Spreads Buddhism to China
Spread of diseases(leads to fall of both Han China and Rome)
Rulers
-Chandragupta Mauria
-Marryan Empire
-Ashoka Maruria
-converts to Buddhism
-Hinduism without caste system(gains popularity with the lower class)
-Chandra Gupta
-revives India
-decentralization
-re-emerges the caste system Confusious
Fall of Han Dynasty
-disease
-too big to control
-large gaps between rich and poor
-Buddhism can rise because of fall
Democracy (and some oligarchy)
Astronomy
male land owners wealthy
polis: city-states Europe (East and West) Islamic Empires Japan China India Dark and Middle Ages Mongols Roman Empire splits into West Rome (Rome) and East Rome(Constantanople)
-West Rome (Germanic Kingdoms)
-Ruled under Charlemagne
-Dark Ages begin
-economic problems leads to fall of Germanic Kingdoms
-Form Holy Roman Empire
-decentralized (church holds most power)
-Feudalism

-East Rome (Byzantine Empire)
-Ruled by Justinian and Theodora
-Caesaropapism (political and religious leaders are one)(strong central government)
-Very Greek-like (Hellenistic)
- Greek Orthodox Christianity Your fate has already been determined by Allah
The Caliph in Islam is the polotocal and religious leader (theocracy)
Tolerated other religions but taxed them
Greek and Persia very influential
5 pilliars
many rights given to women
Muhhamid (profit) was a merchant

Tamerlane's Empire (1450)
-nomatic economy and society
-clan based
-believed in Shamanism (but converted to Islam and Buddhism)
Military Organization
-Ganges Khan
-talented with bows and arrows & horses
-broken up into groups of 1000, then 100, then 10
Turkish Empires (1210)
-Invade Islamic and Byzantine Empire
-Create Ottoman Empire
- Also invade northern India & convert to Islam
Mongol Empire
-decentralized
- military and political leaders are the same
-meritocracy
-invade much of China and Russia
Ottoman Empire
-mix of mongol and turkish empires(Islamic empire falls in 1258)

Monsoons
-Improve farming
-produces lots of food
-specialized labor
India splits into North and South
-North-Islam
-South-Hinduism(Buddhism dissapears)
Caste system
-specialized labor effects caste system
-subcastes (jati)
Patriarichal
Decentralized
Similar to Middle East Many influences from China, but has their own identity
Rejects confusianism
Feudalism
-decentralized
-relies on vassalage (you do this for me, ill do this for you)
Emporor-->Shogun-->Daimyos/Samurais-->Less wealthy samurais-->pheasants
Each level provides land for the class below them, and they provide them with labor
Each unit is politically and economically self sufficient
Same thing going on in West Europe
-differences: -Japan based on responcibility (bushido)
........................-Western Europe based on obligation to live
Aristocracy Centralized power returns
-Song and Tang Dynasties
-Based on Confucian Principles
-Meritocracy- based on skill and ability, not family power (determined by Civil Service Exam)
Neo-confucianism
-Mix of Buddhism and Confucian ideas
Korea recognizes China as supreme (Kow tow)
Patriarichal (foot binding)
Technology improved( gun powder, naval technology, ect) West Europe (Holy Roman Empire) vs. East Europe (Byzantine Empire) Christianity
feudalism
-King---> Nobility/Lords---> Knights--->Pheasants--->Serfs
-King provides land and protection to those who serve him
decentralized (politally)
centralized (church)
Church dictates politics 500 to 1500 CE Greek Orthodox Christianity
Centralized Politically (under Justinian)
Government dictates church
chuch decentralized Exploration Crusades Muslems v. Chrisians
-people were told their sins would be forgiven if they go fight
More economically motivated than religiously Renaissance, Refromation,
and the Enlightenment European Nation States Latin America Africa China and Japan Islamic States (Gunpowder Empires) The portugese were the first to engage in a lot of exploration
-want to build sea based trade route to Asia
-Refromation causes Catholics to need converts
-new technology
Christopher Columbous (1492)
-Tried to find trade routes to India, instead found America
Spain begins to explore
-establish Mexico and Phillipeans
Seven Years War
-who could establish the largest trading empire
Columbian Exchange
Slave trade increases

Encomienda System
-similar to feudalism
-set up by Spain to manage colonies in Amerias
-Viceroys-->peninsulares-->creols-->mestizos-->mulattos
Aztec and Inca populations distroyed Impoved women's rights
power in each country centralized, but decentralized across the board
cultures mix
humanism
ideas spread and church is questioned

Christianity SPLITS
-brought by Martin Luther (german monk)
-Catholisism v. Protestant
-catholics protest agains protestant refromation
-wars of religion (peace of ausburg-peace between religion)

Scientific Revolution-
-Ideas of helocentric universe, against churches ideas

Enlightenment
-King gains power (he has the devine right)
SHIFTS TO
-democracy with representatives
-gov't gets power from will of the people (social contract theory)
-seperation of powers Spain- Ferdinand marries Isabella
- catholic
-spend lots on exploration and navy

England - constitutional monarchy
-establishes America
-one of the worlds dominant powers
-Glorious Revolution leads to decrease in power of king

France- absolute rule of the King
-Louis the 16th thought the country revolved around him
-Kings ego leads to French Revolution

Germany/ Holy Roman Empire
-decentralized
-city states run by princes
-constantly battleing HRE
-Peace of West Phalia determines each city state is indipendant
-Prussia is leading city state (modern day Germany)

Russia- Lags behind Western powers because of the lasting Mongol Rule
- 1400s- finally gains indipendance from Mongols
-Tsars and Czars are absolute rulers (typically abusive of power)
-(Catherine the Great uses feudalism for short period)
-Peter the Great takes steps to Westernize Russia



China
-confucianism
-strict patriarical (foot binding and infaniticide)
-very centralized government
-isolated
-Chritianity influences, but does not take hold
-still trade with Europe even though they see them as a threat Japan
-fixed social system
-patriarichal
-feudalism disgarded and Tokogawa Shogunate takes place
-centralized
-dictator-like
-feared daimyo power
-did not interact with europe in fear of daimios gaining military technology (even more isolated than China)
Neo-confucianism greatly impacts culture
Shinto religion
Samurais morph into peasant class Ottomans(strongest), Safavids and Mughals
-last until world war one
-isolated like China
-Herem were women with most power
-strong centralized power lead by emporor
-theocracy
-religious toleration
-farming and trade (little trade for Safavids)
Europe Africa America Guns & Crops Slaves Tobacco and Rum Triangle Trade Polygamy rises because men are taken for Slavery
Islamic slave trade less harsh
Poplulation growth
West African states & East african Kingdoms
Beginning of Imprialism
Introduction of guns
-civil wars
Christianity
Diasspora- african culture spreads to America
American and European competition
-slavery becomes expensive Industrialization
Americas Ottoman Empire Russia China and Japan Imperialism Industrialization ideas and Elightenment Ideals combined to make new ideas that came with an industrialized society
Links the global economy
Massive increases in productivity
Growth of middle & working class
Pollution
Education and cost of living increase
Factory system replaces farming
Urbanization

United States
American Revolution
-created the first constitutional monarchy
- first of many revolutions
-Industrialization created new economic and social challenges that led to reform movements
-USA became one of the dominant economic and political force in the world


Latin America
-indipendance came in 19th century, but the creation of stable governments was difficult
-majorly undeveloped compared to North

Begins to fall apart( after reaching peak in 1600)
-did not adopt new technology
-Russia pushes south and takes land from Ottomans
-Napolean invades Egypt (but Egyptians revolt
-Europe invades pushing their political ideas, but forces them to pay taxes
-Young Turks call for a reform that never actually takes hold
-resistance to westernized change

Romanovs cause decline
Crimean war (to gain control over Ottomans)
-'disrupts power' and Britain & France get on the side of the Ottomans
Communist society develops as serfs are free China
-lags behind Western Europe because of their isolation
-only one part of China allows European trade
-exporting a lot, but not importing helps them get ahead
-Opium Trade
-balences out trading powers
-Europe tells China to trade Opium -gets them behind
-china is forced into unfair treatys
-Taipei Rebellions
- 2nd most deaths due to civil wars-communists win

Japan
-begins to rise politically because they develop centralized rule
-Meiji Restoration
-emporor gains power and travels to west to adopt ideas
-1889-gain constitutional government
-sinojapanese war (china v. japan(w))
-Rusojapanese war (Japan(w) v. Russia)
-when a country tries to place its ideas in another country
-Manifest Destiny
-discovery of natural resources and cheap labor
White Man's Burden
-role of developed countries to go out and colonize undeveloped countries
-Europe carves up Africa
-after the abolishment of slavery
-Britain dominates trade in India
-British, French and Russians compete for central asia

WWI WWII China and Japan Africa Middle East Americas Cold War globalization
Austro-Hungarian Heir assasinated (caused WWI but it probably would have started anyways) Austro-Hungary v. Serbia Germany
Ottoman Empire Russia
US
France
Britain Treaty of Versialles blames the war on Germany M-Militarism (who can create the biggest military)
A- Alliances (people say 'we have your back' and suddenly everyone is involved
I-Imperialism (who can establish biggest empire)
N-Nationalism (nations self-determinations) Germany doesnt want to fight two front war- so they withdrawl from France and focus on Russia
Russia has a revolution that changes them from Tsarit to Communist soviet Russia( Russia becomes USSR)
Ottoman Empire dismantiled
Central Powers surrender

Worldwide Depression started after WWI
Rise of marxism and fascism Allies Entante What leads to the cold war?
-US supports whites in the russian revolution (grudge held)
-Russia left out of Treaty of Versaillies
-Stalin/Hitler sign non-agression pact but Germany breaks it
Germany splits in two
-On the west there is G.B, US, and France
-On east there is Russia
-Berlin Wall
'Cold' because there was hardly and violence
Proxy wars
-'mini wars' that are basically capitolist v. communist
-ex. cuba, vietnam, korean
Nuclear power ready but never used
China
-civil war
-communists v. nationalists
-communists win and establish "Communist People's Republic of China
-nationalists flee and establish taiwan

Japan
-Japan fights with Allies in WWI
-begins to invade china
-severe nationalism
Mandate system develops (European taking sections of fallen Ottoman Empire
Syria and Lebonon (colonies of france)
Jordan, Iraq and Palistine (colonies of Great Britain)
Millions of African soldiers that fight with Allies
African nationalism begins
decolonization after WWII Latin America
-dicatorships rise
-neo-colonialism

North America
-involved in WWI, WWII, and Cold War
-some control over Latin America Germany wanted a 'redo' of tready of Versailles
Japan thinks they need to rule Asia
Russia and Germany signs a pact saying they wont attach eachother, Germany breaks it
Italy is still colonizing Africa
Germany withdrawls from Leauge of Nations
Munich Conferrence tells Hitler to stop nationalize, but they dont do anything
US places restrictions on Japan but they take revenge (Pearl Harbor)
Axis powers lose
Holocaust (result of Hitlers nationalism)
Allies v. Axis Germany
Italy
Japan US
England
France
Russia More Resources

Easy explinations of types of government-http://www.sangam.org/articles/view2/?uid=532

Timeline
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072957549/student_view0/
Full transcript