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Reconstruction Era 1865-1877

Key gains and failures during Reconstruction.
by

Mark White

on 24 October 2016

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Transcript of Reconstruction Era 1865-1877

Three plans for Re-Building or Reconstruction of the South
13th Amendment
14th Amendment
15th Amendment
Freedmen's Bureau
Negative Outcomes of Reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
Black Codes
Jim Crow
1876 Presidential Election
RECONSTRUCTION
1865-1877

At First Troops go to the South to protect former slaves
Reconstruction:
Success??
Failure??

13th - Free the Slaves
14th - Citizenships
15th - Right to Vote
Created to help former slaves-
1. Teach them to read
2. Feed them
3. Educate them-25 Black Colleges est by 1872
Fisk University, Dillard, Virginia Union
Howard University named from Oliver Otis Howard
who was the Director of the Freedman's Bureau
Black Codes - laws aimed at holding Blacks from Freedom and keeping slavery
Congress passes The "Civil War Amendments
Lincoln's Plan-"The 10% Plan"
1.When 10% of the voters who voted in 1860 election take an oath of allegiance-they could organize a new Government
2.Citizens must accept 13th amendment and make an oath of allegiance to the United States
3. Members of the Confederate Government, officers of the Confederate army, judges, Congressmen, and military who left their jobs in the union could not regain citizenship.
4. Lincoln used the Pocket Veto concerning the Wade Davis Bill-never came into effect-Lincoln thought too harsh.
5. Lincoln's view is held by those who might consider themselves-Conservative Republicans-bring the states back into the Union-be more generous and forgiving.
Congressional, Radical or Military Reconstruction-is what they did in Congress
1. Passed 14th and 15 Amendments
2. Divided the South into military zones
3. New State Constitutions requiring voting rights laws for former slaves
4. Empowered African Americans to run for office and supported education (Freedmans Bureau)

Picture of Charles Sumner
Johnson's plan-
1. Amnesty for those who took loyalty oath. Not Confederate officers
2. Required Southern States to ratify the 13th Amendment -Abolishing Slavery-SC refuses
3. All this done when Congress out of session.
4. Deny-repudiate all Confederate Debts.
Johnson-Undergoes Impeachment-all his programs stalled.
Why was it needed?
1. The South had literally been destroyed
a. No food-thousands starved
B. No governments-no law
c. large percentage of the men dead
2. Fears in the north and congress that slavery would continue
3. Many in the North believed the South and Southerners should be punished

The Compromise of 1877
Republicans give up Reconstruction for an election

Hayes vs. Tilden
Tilden won the Election-deal to be made.
Hayes becomes President - North Ends Reconstruction begins a horrific time for African Americans in the South.
Jim Crow-aimed at seperating the races.
Black only theatres, churches, businesses and more.
This lasts well into the 1960's
There is problem-Lincoln is dead
Started as a Fraternity by General Nathan Bedford Forrest-this soon turned into a white supremist-murdering-lynching hate group.
Abraham Lincoln
Congress led by Radical Republicans
hate the South and believe Southerners are immoral
The President Andrew Johnson is viewed as a Southerner
They exercise real power with the exception of the President being able to VETO bills out of Congress.
Johnson opposes the Congress and The Senate at each step.
President Andrew Johnson
Opposes the Radicals has his own plan
and is Impeached.
The Impeachment of Johnson
Impeachment =indictment
Impeachment brought in the House of Representatives

Tried in the Senate and found innocent
Ends the idea of impeachment for
political reasons (policy) forever.
Only two Presidents ever impeached Johnson and Clinton. Do you know why?
40 Acres and a Mule
States were readmitted as they
complied with Congressional Reconstruction
1868
Ark, North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana
Alabama, and Florida
1870
Virginia
Mississippi
Texas
Georgia
The Compromise of 1877
"The Compromise with the Devil"
1. Removal of all troops from the former
Confederate States. Troops remained only in Louisiana, SC and Florida, but this ended Reconstruction
2. The appointment of at least one Southern Demo
to Hayes cabinet (Postmaster General)
3. Construction of Transcontinental RR using the
Texas and Pacific in the South
4. Legislation to industrialize the South.
This never happened. The North no longer wanted to
spend money on the South.
Freedman not to be taught to read or write
"No person of color shall migrate into and reside in this state, unless, within twenty days after his arrival within the same, he shall enter into a bond with two freeholders as sureties"
"Servants shall not be absent from the premises without the permission of the master"
Servants must assist their masters "in the defense of his own person, family, premises, or property"
No person of color could become an artisan, mechanic, or shopkeeper unless he obtained a license from the judge of the district court – a license that could cost $100 or more.
Kentucky Jim Crow Laws:
Prohibited whites from marrying any Negro or any descendant of any Negro to the third generation inclusive. Penalty: Felony, punishable by imprisonment in the state penitentiary up to five years.
School district trustees given right to create separate schools for black children.
Railway companies to provide equal but separate accommodations for white and colored passengers. Penalty: Passengers or conductors not complying with the law subject to a fine of $25 or imprisonment for 20 days. Officers and directors of railway companies that fail to comply guilty of a misdemeanor and could be fined between $100 and $500. Law did not apply to streetcars.
Slave Codes
Reconstruction Terms:
Scalawag
-Southerners who sympathized with Former Slaves, now Freedman
Carpetbagger
-Northerner who traveled to the South to take advantage of economics or to help Freedman find education or prosperity
Poll Tax
-tax to pay if you wanted to vote
Literacy Test-hard test meant to take away the vote for African American
Grandfather Clause
-If you Grandfather voted in the South you could vote.

Ullyses S. Grant is elected President in 1868-
After Andrew Johnson, it is relief. But Grant is no
politician. There is graft, corruption and the mishandling
of Reconstruction during this time.
1. Southerners hate Grant
2. Northerners tire from the corruption and the tax
money going to the South.
3. This leads to the failure of Reconstruction through
the Compromise of 1877....awful
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