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Fields of study in critical theory

literature and film (basics)
by

Belen Serrapio

on 12 February 2016

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Transcript of Fields of study in critical theory

Fields of study in
critical theory
Institute Pbro. Dr. Antonio Saenz
Tutor: Maria Cristina Llorente
L&CII
by Belen Serrapio
WEBLIOGRAPHY

Kristeva. Available at: http://www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/psychoanalysis/kristevaabject.html
Lacan. Available at: http://www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/psychoanalysis/lacanstructure.html
Eleanor Ty, Mary Shelley’s biography, Wilfrid Laurier University. Available at: http://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/shelleybio.html
O'Neil, D., GLOSSARY-CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY (2002-2005). Available at: http://anthro.palomar.edu/tutorials/cglossary.html
Harris, R., GLOSSARY-LITERARY TERMS (1997) Available at: http://www.virtualsalt.com/litterms.html
Noonuccal, O., Biographic Note & Poetry (2007). Available at: http://www.ict.griffith.edu.au/~davidt/redlandbay/oodgeroo.html
Chandler, D., An Introduction to Genre Theory (1997) Available at: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/intgenre/intgenre.html
Schlemowitz, J., GLOSSARY-FILM TERMS (1999) Available at: http://homepage.newschool.edu/~schlemoj/film_courses/glossary_of_film_terms/glossary.html
Gender Roles and Gender Stratification. Available at: http://www.people.vcu.edu/~jmahoney/gender101.htm#introduction
Jahn, M., A Guide to Narratological Film Analysis (2003) Available at: http://www.uni-koeln.de/~ame02/pppf.html
Rodriguez Avila, S. R., BORDER THEORY (2009). Available at: http://www.personal.psu.edu/srr5051/blogs/sergio/border-theory-and-the-most-important-border.html
Siegel, K., Introduction to Modern Literary Theory (2006). Available at: http://www.kristisiegel.com/theory.htm#reception
Rampton, M. (2008) Feminism. Available at: http://www.pacificu.edu/magazine_archives/2008/fall/echoes/feminism.cfm
Literature
&
Film

Structuralism
SEMIOLOGY & SEMIOTICS
Post-Structuralism
Border Theory
Digital theory
Narratology
Genre
G
e
n
d
e
r

GENDER: “the culturally variable elaboration of sex, as a hierarchical pair (where male is coded superior and female inferior“

SEX: “a theory about human beings which divides them into two biologically based categories – male or female."

SEXUALITY: “a set of social processes which produce and organise the structure and expression of desire.“

INSTITUTION: “set of relationships and/or practices which are expressions of mainstream social values and beliefs, and have the support – explicit and implicit – of other social and cultural institutions. (POLITICS, EDUCATION, THE FAMILY...)“

PATRIARCHY: (institution) “a social system in which structural differences in privilege, power and authority are invested in masculinity and the cultural, economic and/or social positions of men.”

MATRIARCHY: " a society in which females, especially mothers, have the central roles of political leadership, moral authority, and control of property."

HETEROSEXISM: “describes social or personal structures which are defined and regulated by exclusive and compulsory heterosexuality.”

HOMOSEXUAL: “having a sexual propensity for person’s of one’s own sex (inversion/ invert, lesbian, gay).”

IDENTITY: “a concept which enables groups to come together around the articulation of shared experience.”

EXPERIENCE: “process where a subject interacts with material, economic and interpersonal realities and transforms them into subjective experiences, interpreting and creating her/himself in the process. It is a doing and a becoming.”
Feminism
“1984”
PRINT BASED TEXT
NOVEL
AUTHOR: George Orwell
3rd PERSON OMNICIENT NARRATOR
FOCALIZER: Winston (main character)
NON-LINEAR
ANTISOCIAL FICTION
CONTEXT OF PRODUCTION
Setting time: 1949
Setting place: UK
STORY: People live in a place totally controlled by the Party – a group of powerful not very well-known people – which inflects fear in the inhabitans of middle-class in order to control them. The Party seems to invent wars, lay to the people and practically make them starve while it gives them all –Party says- need to live – survive – such as a place to live (dirty and broken), work (controlled and supervised), education (manipulated and regulated) and food (almost nothing and unhealthy, but plenty of vodka). All along the story we see how the main character , Winston, lives, enjoys, suffers, struggles, why he is who he is, the relationships with his mother and absent father, neighbours, friends and lovers. Though he carries a very poor way of life, he does not belong to the lowest level of economy. Those who do seem to be almost completely free from the hands of Big Brother and his party. In a way Winston tries to escape from the Party, committing thought crime and what would be consider treason, but thought he does not believe in the Party, the double-think he has developed stops him from trying to escape in a more physical/concrete way.
PLOT: “… A party member lives from birth to death under the eye of the Thought Police. Even when he is alone he can never be sure that he is alone. Wherever he may be, asleep or awake, working or resting in his bath or his bed, he can be inspected. Nothing that he does is indifferent. His friendships, relaxations, his behaviour towards his wife and children, the expression of his face when he is alone, the words he mutters in sleep, even the characteristic movements of his body, are all jealously scrutinised…” (page 219, ‘1984’ (1949))
Structure (Todorov)

1- Winston lives according to the rules of the Party.
2- Winston starts writing down his thoughts, even though he knows he is commiting thought crimes.
3- They are constantly conscious of their crimes and know about the possible consequences. They are caught.
4- They are interrogated, starved, left aside and tortured.
5- They are reintegrated to society as new human beings totally loyal to the party.
INTERTEXT: ‘La vita è bella’ (1997-Roberto Benigni), ‘V for Vendetta’ (2006-James McTeigue)
by George Orwell
Analysis
Reception
&
Production Theories

understanding of the
world

with structures that make it meaningfull
is understood as a "system of oppositions"
Ferdinand de Saussure
Levi-Strauss
Todorov
Structuralism
identity
the eruption of the real into our lives
is associated with
fear
jouissance
to the
of
our entrance
establishment
is crucial
for the
distinction
between
has to do with what
neither object nor subject
does not respect borders / positions / rules
disturbs identity / system / order
marks and
reestablishes our
is
of
narcissism
for
the
a precondition
the mirror stage
between
when
(m)other
me
boundary
begin to
recognize
between
refers to
the
of
representatives
imagined as
sex
murder
animal
human
a border /
separation
we established
moment in psychosexual development
"object of desire"
to its
subject's relation
of
the
the establishment
which
precedes
primal repression
is
his / her desires
to coordinate
allows
a
subject
Symbolic order
is situated before
Lacan's
contrasts to
reminds us of our own materiality
Open wound
Shit
Sewage
Skin of warm milk
Corpse
can be elicited
from
Object ( other)
Subject (self)
the loss of the
to a
caused by
threatened
breakdown
in meaning
human
reaction
refers to the
Abject
(Julia Kristeva)
Psychoanalysis
‘mother right’
‘rule of the father”
networks of power
recognize
/
=
Queer
Language
normality
abnormality
Sexual other
Gay / Lesbian
ILL other
Homo
hetero
(dominant)
Orientation
Institution
Sexuality
Identity
Gendered gaze
pollution
Purity / Impurity
Patriarchy
Matriarchy
Masculinity / Femininity
Male / female
manipulation
Body
Sex
Gender
Telling (novel)
Showing (plays - films)
Participatory (videogames)
Modes of
engagement
presents
different
not the
changes the
is
is
Translation / paraphrase
Announced - extensive transposition
of a particular work or works
(re-) interpretation / appropriation
(re-) creation / salvaging
a form of Intertextuality
reception
creation
Process
Formal entity / product
double
nature
has
A free rendering / amplification of a passage
Intersemiotic transpositions from one sign system to another
an openly announced relationship with prior texts (sources)
is
transgenerational phenomenon
ongoing dialogical process
repetition without replication
plot order, pace, shifts, ending
themes, points of view, events, consequences, world, contexts, symbols, imagery, characters, motivations…
Story
Spirit
Tone
Style
content
form
(Linda
Hutcheon)
Adaptation
Dark, urban and shadowy settings
Crime and mystery plots and ambiguous resolutions
Characters living on the edge of mysterious or violent society-criminals or crime detectors
Dread of the unseen and horror of the seen
Suspense, surprise and shock
Characters with deformities and/or more than one identity
Crime Films
Horror Films
Theatrical acting styles –
interaction with mise-en-scène
Move forward by musical
numbers
Characters express emotions
and thoughts through song and
dance
Musicals
Interior scenes and close-ups
Emotional or physical climaxes
Characters struggle to express their feelings or emotions
Melodramas
Open, natural spaces and settings
Quests
Characters physically and
mentally tough
Westerns
Theatrical acting styles –
interaction with mise-en-scène
Individual episodes are
emphasized
Happy conclusions
Characters defined by physical
features or manner of speaking
Comedy
(Daniel Chandler)
Melodrama
Comedy
Genres
Adventure films ('the swashbuckler‘ - 'survival films' (war movie-safari film-disaster movies)
Western;
‘Fantastic genres‘ (fantasy-horror-science fiction)
‘Antisocial genres‘ (crime film-gangster film-G.man film-private eye or detective film-Film noir-Caper film and ‘Weepies' (or 'women's films')).
slapstick comedy
romantic comedy ('screwball comedy‘-musical comedy)
musical biography
fairy tale.
(Todorov)
1- Equilibrium at the outset
2- Disruption of the equilibrium
3- Recognition of the disruption
4- An attempt to repair the disruption
5- A reinstatement of the equilibrium
what the reader perceives (signifier)
what the reader conceives or understands (signified), toghether with what the reader brings to it,
can be Linear or Non-linear
(flashbacks, flashforewards)
STORY
PLOT
Narrative Structure
shows logical change of the characters and their actions.
reader-response
theory
Reception theory
the many different strands of
analysis that focus on the reader as active participant in the creation of meaning.
audience
are shaped by
RECEPTION
Production
Exhibition
stardom
genre
conceptions of
history
emerges from the arbitrary relationship between the signifier and the signified
Language
SIGN
study of
and its systems
SEMIOLOGY / SEMIOTICS
Repudiates the view that
fiction
reflects the world.
Language
does not belong to individuals.
it already exists before we are born into
the
world.
it constantly changes,
Post-Structuralism
 
"... is a very useful tool in order to analyze the aspects that separate people from one another.  It is also useful to seek for a solution because you define the specific aspects that need to be modified."
 
Border Theory
"... Disneyland presents itself as
an
exuberantly imaginary world
, distinct
from the ‘
real
’ world outside its gates. Yet
Baudrillard argues that the
hyperreal
excesses
of Disneyland mask the fact that
America itself is almost as
artificial
and
unreal
, and that the ‘
reality principle
’ has
imploded..."
a state of being
contemporary culture
philosopher
Jean Baudrillard
HYPERREALITY
constituents
Specially formatted documents
in a script called HTML:

mark-up language
access to the network of networks
network is the infrastructure upon
which telecommunication is built
world
wide web
internet
network
ultimately emerges from the physical
hard drive of a computer
American author
William Gibson (1948–)
virtual reality
CYBERSPACE
HYPERTEXT
Digital theory
purpose
to critically analyze what has happened in the past that shapes our present in every way
our languages,
ways we dress,
the friends we have,
the social class we belong to,
the problems that surround us
defining the aspects that humans develop
is
in order to
separate themselves from one another
with
different cultural backgrounds, language, nations, and beliefs
blaming others
versus
understanding what has happened in the past and taking personal action to solve them
in film
including
“1984”
“V for Vendetta”
“La vita è bella”
“Hunger games”
Print based
Novel
Antisocial Fiction
UK
UK
Italy
North America
Film
Antisocial Fiction
Film
Social drama
Film
Antisocial Fiction
Upper-class totalitarian government oppressing the proles
Upper-class totalitarian government oppressing the proles
Upper-class totalitarian government oppressing the proles
Nazi enforcement
oppressing Jew
Winston (coexisting in society but rebellious)
Mysterious figure (loner and totally rebellious)
Guido (Jew, lovely father and husband)
Katniss (coexisting in society but rebellious)
Thought crime and others quite passive
Terrorists acts (always against government)
Creates a game/ story to protect his son’s innocence while they are in a Nazi death camp
Taking her sister’s place in the game and standing out of the rest of the players, becoming unique in the game - surviving.
Murder
Brain washing
Isolation, torture and brain washing.
Isolation, torture and brain washing
Murder
Privileged class solution
Way of rebellion used by Hero
Hero
Way of Living
Setting Time
Setting Place
Type of narrative
Dystopian Future
Dystopian Future
Dystopian Future
Past
SIGNIFIED
= meaning
studies the role of signs as part of social life
sIGNIFICATION
(nothing is a sign until it becomes interpreted as such)
any material thing that signifies.
the concept that a signifier refers to.
Meanings
are unfixed, discontinuous and unstable.
describes
is
full of
electronic images from television,
video and computing
are becoming more
the real
+ legitimate
allows
add their own links or comments
alters
our methods
of reading
click on a highlighted link and move to a new domain
the readers to
denotes
sense of the relationships
between nodes of texts connected
electronically in cyberspace
Feminism
femenine hard-working women
focus on differences between women, the different ways in which women today negotiate their lives as feminists.
are not interested in taking sides in the theory wars of their mothers’ generation
Third-wave feminists
First wave
late 19th and early 20th centuries
emerged out of an environment of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics
The goal of this wave was EQUALITY
(to open up opportunities for women, with a focus on suffrage)
by middle class white women
"Mary Wollstonecraft (d. 1797), and Jane Austen (d. 1817) are foremothers of the modern women's movement. All of these people advocated for the dignity, intelligence, and basic human potential of the female sex."
mid-90's
Second wave
women of color and developing nations, seeking sisterhood and solidarity
to demonstrate that race, class, and gender oppression are all related.
1960s and continued into the 90's
sexuality and reproductive rights were dominant issues
BINARY
OPPOSITIONS
language
Ferdinand de Saussure
, 1857-1913. "Ferdinand de Saussure was born in Geneva into a family of well-known scientists. He studied Sanskrit and comparative linguistics in Geneva, Paris, and Leipzig.
In Linguistics, Saussure's focus on the synchronic dimension and on language as an interrelated system of elements was maintained through the American Structuralist period (Bloomfield, Hockett), and also in the Generative period (Chomsky, Bresnan). His view of the essential nature of the form-meaning pairing, without the intermediate and essentiallly meaningless syntactic layer posited by Chomsky, Perlmutter, and other generative theory-builders, has re-emerged in theories like Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (Sag and Pollard) and Construction Grammar."

Source: http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Found/saussurebio.html
Claude Lévi-Strauss
(1908-2009) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist and one of the central figures in the structuralist school of thought. He held the chair of social anthropology at the Collège de France from 1959 to 1982. Elected member of the Académie Française in 1973, he was a key figure in the human sciences in the second half of the twentieth century. He was also a foreign member of the academies of the United States of America, United Kingdom, Netherlands and Norway, and received honorary doctorates from 15 universities worldwide, as well as many national and international awards for his research.

Source:
http://www.unesco.org/culture/aic/echoingvoices/claude-levi-strauss.php#
Tzevtan Todorov
, born in Bulgaria, is Research Professor of the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). A philosopher, historian of ideas, linguist and semiologist, his most recent work has focused on multicultural societies and the question of memory. In 2011, he received the Prix de la Critique of the Académie Française.

Source: http://www.unesco.org/culture/aic/echoingvoices/tzvetan-todorov.php
SIGNIFIER
SIGN
can be anything that can be used to communicate
a system of signs
"1984"
by George Orwell
Binary
oppositions

examines the ways in which narrative structures our perception of both cultural artifacts and the world around us.
NARRATOLOGY
"1984"
"1984"
Jacques Derrida
Michel Foucault
Julia Kristeva
Julia Kristeva

"
is a writer, a psychoanalyst and professor at the Institut Universitaire de France. Director of the doctoral program “Language, Literature, Image" at the University Paris Diderot-Paris 7, she is a member of the Psychoanalytic Society of Paris and Doctor Honoris Causa of several universities in the United States, Canada and Europe where she teaches on a regular basis."

Source: http://www.unesco.org/en/2010-international-year-for-the-rapprochement-of-cultures/high-panel-on-peace-and-dialogue-among-cultures/composition-of-the-high-panel-of-18-february-2010/julia-kristeva/
Jacques Derrida, Ph.D
., was born to an Algerian Jewish family in El-Biar, Algeria, in 1930 and died on October 9, 2004.
.
.. He wrote reviews on publications devoted to history and the nature of writing, which appeared in the latter half of the 1960's in the Parisian journal, Critique. These works would be foundational to Derrida's highly influential work, Of Grammatology. Derrida was introduced to America in 1967 by the Johns Hopkins University, where he delivered his lecture "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences."

Source: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/jacques-derrida/biography/
Michel Foucault
..."was a French philosopher or more specifically a historian of systems of thought, a self-made title created when he was promoted to a new professorship at the prestigious Collège de France in 1970. Foucault is generally accepted as having been the most influential social theorist of the second half of the twentieth century...."

Source: http://www.egs.edu/library/michel-foucault/biography/
Democracy vs. Totalitarianism
Pleasure vs. Torture/punishment
Freedom vs. Slavery
Solidarity vs. Egocentrism
Nature vs. Manhood
Loyalty vs. Treason
Common Wealth vs. Individual Wealth

structuralism
semiotics
narratology
genre
reception studies
post-structuralism
gender studies --> feminism
(film studies)
border theory
digital theory
Hyperreality is present in
as the inhabitants of Oceania are constantly bombarded with images on the telescreens.
"1984"
Jean Baudrillard
, "Ph.D., French sociologist, cultural critic, and theorist of postmodernity, was born July 27, 1929 in the northern town of Reims. Jean Baudrillard taught at the European Graduate School EGS from its earliest period until his death on March 6, 2007.... Jean Baudrillard was a university sociology teacher and a leading intellectual figure of his time. His early life was influenced by the Algerian war in the 1950s and 1960s...."

Source: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/jean-baudrillard/biography/
"1984"
Julia
Winston
Mrs Parsons
Big Brother
patriarcal society
institutions: education, ministries, the family
working, divorced, middle-class man
working, middle-class woman
male omnipresent figure on power (God like)
housewife, middle-class woman
"1984"
"1984"
working man, family head and support
Mr Parsons
author
=
narrator
/
focalizer
writer
the focalizer can be any character who is the center of perception
tells the story
who sees the story
"1984"
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Corrigan, T. & White, P., The Film Experience, Boston-New York, BEDFORD/ST. MARTIN´S
Lacey, N. (2004) Introduction to Film, MACMILLAN
Lacey, N. (2004) Narrative & Genre, MACMILLAN
Dick, B. F., Anatomy of Film (3er edition)
Hayward, S. (2005) Key Concepts in cinema studies, BLAXPLOITATION
Gamble, S. (1998) The Routledge Companion to Feminism and Postfeminism, London and New York
Fernald, A. E. (2006) Virginia Woolf: Feminism and the Reader, palgrave: New York
Rabaté, J. (2001) Jacques Lacan: Psychoanalysis and the Subject of Literature, palgrave: New York
Ashcroft, B. – Griffiths, G. & Tiffin, H., Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies, ROUTLEDGE, London-New York
Orwell, G., (1949) 1984, PENGUIN, UK
Collins, S., The Hunger Games (2008), SCHOOLASTIC PRESS, USA
Bignell, J., Media Semiotics (2nd edition)
Ashcroft, B. – Griffiths, G. & Tiffin, H., Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies, ROUTLEDGE, London-New York
Villarejo,A. (2007) Film Studies: the basics, ROUTLEDGE, USA and Canada
Malpas, S., Wake, P. (2006) Routledge Companion to Critical Theory, ROUTLEDGE, USA and Canada
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