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Cold War Origins

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by

Seth Koh

on 4 September 2011

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Transcript of Cold War Origins

USA (w. BRITAIN & FRANCE)

vs.

USSR/Soviet union
Set precedence in the formation and application of a doctrine for the containment of communism.
A counter to the emerging anti Soviet Bloc

that touched the whole world...via
The Cold War.
What is it?
and their complicated relationship/squabble/conflict...
But with greatest concerns in europe
Aspects of CONFLICT
Economic
Political
Military
a tale of
2 blocs
East
West
proxies
as opposed to....
direct conflict
The Korean War
The Vietnam War
The Cuban Missile Conflict
The Afghan War
*
the concept of M.A.D
(mutually assured destruction)
why not a confrontation?
Ideological struggle
Ideological struggle
Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan
Warsaw Pact
COMECON
Cominform
NATO
The fall of Communism
characterizing their conflict...
the beginning of the ideological conflict
Progression of the Cold War
but...
A common enemy united them:
fascism
Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin at Yalta
vs
Concluding WW2...
potsdam conference
Cold War's roots of tension
1.)End to the marriage of convenience
2.)d-DAY DELAYS
3.) ideological CLASHES
the beginning of antagonistic relations
This 1919 Bolshevik poster: White generals vicious dogs who are under the control of
America, France and Britain.
SO.What happens after?
Western involvement in Russian Civil war
Delay in opening 2nd war front
Nazi-soviet Pact
spread of mutually exclusive ideology
rhetoric from both blocs
Marshall Plan vs COMECON

Truman Doctrine vs Cominform
NATO vs Warsaw Pact
Nov1945
wartime alliance
wartime alliance
AFTER WHICH...
old perceptions and habits return:
The general idea of the wartime alliance:
fighting Nazi Germany on 2 fronts
Germany invaded USSR in Op. Barbarossa(22June, 1941).
German aggressive invasion found much initial success...
a military alliance was formed(July 12, 1941):
Here's a big picture of what that means
the shaded area is how far in Germany managed to push! They ALMOST made Moscow...
and quickly,
what did they hope to achieve?
In North France,D-Day, Normandy Landing(6 June,1944),
the much awaited 2nd Front opens
after 3 years of pressure from Stalin
USSR'S SUSPICIONS
were they making us bear the brunt of the war?
The Communist gripe
Exploring Perspectives:
What you're seeing is society split into
classes
proleteriat
and
there's the bourgeoisie...
who owns the means of production
In Communism:
means of production
ARE PUBLICLY OWNED
SOCIETY>INDIVIDUAL
In Capitalism:
means of production
ARE PRIVATELY OWNED
INDIVIDUAL>SOCIETY
politically,socially and economically
antithetical
4.) Post-War Disagreements
EVENTS
(1945, 16July-2Aug)
where the unraveling starts...
wHAT HE WANTED
VS
WHAT THEY WANTED
*Churchill/atlee, truman, stalin
Wartime Alliance
post-war aims
Fate of Europe
Fate of Germany
Invasion of Japan
Soviet invasion
vs
Japanese soldier surrendering to Soviet soldiers.
The Atomic Bomb
`
Issue of Reparations
The division of Germany
The Bockscar and its crew, who dropped the "Fat Man" atomic bomb on Nagasaki.
East vs West
Germany
Berlin
Political
strategic security
Free elections
Soviet Sattelite states
vs
need for security
need for security
Replaced Churchill as Prime Minister
halfway through the conference
Clement Attlee
SWAP!
Took over as President when Roosevelt in 1945 April
with the context and premise for conflict established...
Feb 1947
The doctrine's key ideas?
support anti communist governments
defend against communist elements
Excerpt from Speech
to Congress
provide aid:economic/military/ political
Britain's domestic state of things...
Britain austere Post-War years
causes her to reduce her international involvement...
Rebellion of Communist elements
Rebellion of Communist elements
Regional Domino effect
Fed U.S fear of a
MID EAST
and so Truman sought for Congress to take action...
Truman's address that reflected:
And Britain vacates Greece, creating a vacuum of power
Greece &Turkey's need for aid
the need for a global defence of the world against communism
U.S Aid to Turkey and Greece
+
=
US$400 Million
Initially: Europe
Later on: Periphery,Globalisation of CW
outcome:
POLICY OF CONTAINMENT
June 1947
a.k.a European Recovery Program
crippled european economies
war-bolstered U.S economy
POLICY OF CONTAINMENT IN ACTION
Economic aid to keep Europe going so as to....
curb communist influence in W.Europe
How?
speed up economic recovery of Europe
support and fund anti-communist governments
&
Capture open markets for U.S goods
Ensure U.S economic security
because socialism becomes more attractive to the poor and suffering
create reliance for U.S goods. E.R.P was not only in cash form...
Terms and conditions of Marshall Plan allowed for U.S to influence these markets
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
1949
Soviet alternative to the E.R.P
get Europe rich enough to trade with USA.
to create
economic integration in E.Europe away from W.Europe
(W.Europe)
w.europe economy
e.europe economy
Marshall Plan
COMECON
U.S.A
USSR
why?
ensure tighter control(econ.) on satellite states
in a position to fully exploit E.Europe's resources for post-war reconstruction
why?
prevent reliance on U.S goods via E.R.P
to ensure E.R.P did not pose a threat to Soviet control in E.Europe
how?
prevent economic changes from the E.R.P that would lead to a revolution in the USSR
subject to external supervision
disclose information
opening of economy
Soviet rejection of E.R.P
Communist organization of European communist parties
COMMUNIST INFORMATION BUREAU
retaliation to:
the policy of containment
how Cominform retaliated
what Cominform was
a way to enforce political will over Communists
Cominform,Stalin's political will:
acceleration of Communisation/Sovietisation
militant anti-government stance
Soviet Foreign Policy
Soviet Foreign Policy
MISTRUSTS
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION
April1949
Berlin Blockade
June 1948 - May 1949
The background lay in the division of Germany:
the division of Berlin
West's perspective
East's perspective
West Berlin in a hostage-like situation
West Berlin a threat/challenge to Soviet control
why?
a symbol of freedom and ideals against those of USSR'S
geographically
&
the different plans for Germany
USSR
USA
1.) A weakened Communist Germany
a strong democratic Germany
2.) Soviets were not paying reparations and wanted more
West wanted the agreed upon reparations!
Soviets were looting their zone!
West was reviving German economy!
result?
the desire to create a West German state
from West's countries' zones
separate currency
separate politics
economic
political
realized Soviet fears of...
a strong Western Germany
threatened Soviet control in E.Germany, threatened Soviet security
remember WW2,German invasion of Russia?
East West Politics in Germany
SPILLOVER
TO
iNTERNAL POLITICS OF BERLIN
West Berlin's strength=Threat to Soviet control in Berlin
notice parallel to Germany's politics?
Significance?
Molotov
"What happens to Berlin, happens to Germany; what happens to Germany, happens to Europe."
Berlin's politics
Germany's politics
European politics
credibility of blocs
influence of blocs
perception
Soviet action?
blocking off Berlin from the outside world
to attempt starving W.Berlin into surrendering political control to E.Berlin
& kick Western Bloc out of Berlin
attempt fail!
thanks to the Berlin Airlift!
flying West bloc aircraft...
into w.Berlin
to deliver food supplies
Berlin Blockade
Soviets announce an end to the unsuccessful Berlin Blockade
28June 1948
12May 1949
consequence of the b.b?
Accelarated creation of West German State
Creation of NATO
Policy of Containment
a military arrangement
(reflected in the Truman Doctrine)
W.Europe
+ USA
between W.European nations
Signing of The Treaty of Brussels
evolved into!
NATO
Difference b/n NATO & T.O.B?
1948
why NATO?
HOW?
Increased rigidity in eastwest relations
Increased rigidity in eastwest relations
collective security
Perceived Soviet expansionism
BERLIN BLOCKADE
against
weak post-war Europe
strong post-war USA
various other Communist takeovers in E.Europe
ideological alliance
Guard against Germany
so why NATO?
First NATO Sec. Gen, Lord Ismay:

"to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down"
1955
W.P, a military alliance
to counterweight
NATO
strategic safeguard against West
mechanism to keep region firmly under Moscow!
Military Dimension to the C.W is sealed
ideological alliance
would they want "equality"?
1947
Berlin
(U.S Action: Operation Vittles)
also
think ww2
Full transcript