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Space Exploration Timeline
Transcript of Space Exploration Timeline
April 12, 1981, the first of 28 missions
What is Space Exploration?
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of outer space by means of space technology. Physical exploration of space is conducted both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. Space exploration has often been used as a proxy competition for geopolitical rivalries, such as the Cold War.
"Once you have tasted flight, you will forever walk the earth with your eyes turned skyward." --Leonardo Da Vinci
What has Space Exploration contributed to society?
Both Google Maps and Google Earth provide highly detailed aerial photographs for most parts of the world. These photos come from one of two places satellite images or aerial photographs taken by airplanes. Image quality in different cities and countries depends on where the images came from. Old satellite photos have a lot less resolution than recent satellite or aircraft photos.
Both Google Maps and Google Earth provide highly detailed aerial photographs for most parts of the world. These photos come from one of two places, satellite images or aerial photographs taken by airplanes. Image quality in different cities and countries depends on where the images came from. Old satellite photos have a lot less resolution than recent satellite or aircraft photos.
Contributions to Society
Moving Atlantis November 2, 2012
Built 1985, 33 missions
But let's start from the beginning of aviation, before space exploration was even thought of and people were still trying to create usable air crafts!
the kite is invented by the Chinese
The two owned a bicycle repair shop and spent their spare time working towards a dream of creating a powered and controlled flying machine. In 1900, the Wright Glider was the brothers' first to be capable of carrying a man. The glider was first flown as an unmanned kite on October 5, 1900 near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Wilbur rode as pilot while men on the ground held tether ropes attached to the airborne craft.
April 16, 1867 -
May 30, 1912
August 19, 1871 -
January 30, 1948
On December 17, 1903, modern aviation was born. Returning back to Kitty Hawk, NC the brothers flew the Wright Flyer 1. The flight lasted 12 seconds and was 120 feet in the air. Later that day, three more flights were made with Wilbur piloting and a record flight lasting 59 seconds over a distance of 852 feet.
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1, 1958, the agency was disbanded, and its assets and personnel transferred to the newly created National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The United States Post Office Department created the nation’s commercial aviation industry. From 1918 to 1927, the Post Office Department built and operated the nation’s airmail service, establishing routes, testing aircraft and training pilots. When the Department turned the service over to private contractors in 1927, the system was a point of national pride.
Elizabeth "Bessie" Coleman
January 26, 1892 - April 30, 1926
January 22, 1906 - July 18, 1992
Returning back to America later that year still facing both difficulties of racial and gender discrimination, Coleman was once again rejected and moved back to France. After learning many of the standard barnstorming tricks, Coleman returned to the United States. Her first air show was on September 3, 1922, at Glenn Curtiss Field in Garden City, New York was very successful. From there on,Bessie became very well-known. It was on April 30, 1926 that Coleman's aviation career ended tragically. Practicing for a show in Jacksonville, Mississippi, Bessie not having her seat belt on in the air looking for landing spots, catapulted to her death. Coleman's impact on aviation history, and particularly African Americans, quickly became apparent following her death. Although her relatively short career, Bessie Coleman strongly challenged early 20th century stereotypes about white primacy and the incapabilities of women. Coleman proved that people did not have to berestrained by their gender or their skin color to succeed their dreams.
In her late 20s, Bessie began applying to flight schools throughout the country to become a pilot, but because she was both female and an African American, no U.S. flight school would take her. Coleman met Robert Abbott, who recommended that she save some money and move to France, which he believed was the world's most racially progressive nation, and obtain her pilot's license there. Coleman attended the well-known Caudron Brothers' School of Aviation in Le Crotoy, France. There she learned to fly using French Nieuport airplanes. On June 15, 1921, Coleman obtained her pilot's license from Federation Aeronautique Internationale after only seven months. She was the first black woman in the world to earn an aviator's license.
Dr. Robert H. Goddard is considered "The Father of Modern Rockety. As an American physicist and inventor, Goddard led the way to liquid-fuel propelled rockets. Goddard dreamed of aircrafts that could reach Mars. As the case of many others, the signifigance of his work was not seen until after his death. On March 16,1926 in a field near Worcester, Massachusetts, his rocket flew for just 2.5 seconds and rose to a height of 41 feet, and proved that liquid-fueled rockets worked.
American scientists took the first pictures of Earth from space taken on the sub-orbital V-2 rocket flight on October 24, 1946 at 65 miles high.
first footage taken in space
The first living organisms go outer space from earth. The United States military launches fruit flies into space using a new V2 rocket in order to test how radiation may affect various biological samples. Fruit flies were found alive after parachuting down to Earth in a capsule, setting a stage for presence of more complex biology in space.
Americans (Air Force Aeromedical Laboratory) attempted to send the first primate astronaut into space on a modified V2 rocket. Unfortunately, it died en route, failing to pass the boundary of space. Albert, weighing nine pounds, was sealed in a personal
capsule. Flight lasted for six minutes and reached maximum altitude of 39 miles.
1948 - Primates in Space
Albert the second became the first primate to reach space, on June 14, 1949. He
passed the internationally recognized boundary of space, known as the Karman line,
reaching a maximum altitude of 83 miles or 134 kilometers. Albert the second perished
upon return to Earth.
Albert the third and Albert the fourth concluded these series of launches. The Albert
Series project was not popularized by the government and was kept in relative secrecy
The monkeys were given anesthetics and were studied via various sensors and cameras.
This was deemed necessary to prevent human loss in the future manned missions which
were already contemplated at the time. It took a decade, until 1959, to successfully send
monkeys into space and safely return them alive to Earth.
Sputnik 1 was the first artificial Earth satellite. It was a 58 cm diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennae to broadcast radio pulses. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on October 4, 1957.
Famous for his "Mona Lisa" painting, this historic artist was one of the first visionaries of flight gear.
Leonardo Da Vinci
July 20, 1969
"One small step for man, one giant leap for man kind."
NASA's Space Exploration
NASA's space shuttles have racked up an amazing set of accomplishments over their 30 active years, not to mention the miles and statistics. But after three decades and 135 flights, the era of the NASA space shuttle is at an end. -JULY 21, 2011
Total number of NASA space shuttle missions that will have flown between 1981 and 2011. NASA added the prefix of "STS" (Space Transportation System) to each shuttle mission. Of the 135 missions, 133 flights went as planned, with two ending in disaster.
The scorching hot temperatures (in Fahrenheit) experienced by NASA shuttles in the hottest moments of atmospheric re-entry during landing.
The number of man-hours NASA shuttles spent in space during their 30-year history. That's about 8,280 days of manned spaceflight, NASA officials said.
The weight in pounds of cargo that NASA's space shuttles have launched into orbit. That's more than half the payload weight of every single space launch in history since 1957 combined.
The estimated total cost of NASA's 30-year space shuttle program from development through its retirement.
The Future of Space Exploration
Whereas winged flight was developed mostly through the efforts of individual enthusiasts, inventors and entrepreneurs, the exploration of space demanded the resources that only a large nation could command. The basic of flight into space were simple enough. Given a sufficiently powerful thrust, any object could theoretically be flung either into orbit or beyond the pull of Earth’s gravity. But in practice such a venture posed daunting problems -- requiring rockets with awesome power, space vehicles capable of withstanding extreme forces and temperatures, communication and control systems of great precision, and support systems to sustain life outside the atmosphere. That space travel has become a reality is a supreme example of organization and technological innovations, as well as individual human courage
5 FUN FACTS
Yuriy Gagarin, a soviet army major, remained in the orbit for 1 hour and 48 minutes. It
proved that human beings can survive in space. This success was utilized by the Soviet
Union as a political victory and accelerated the space race between the U.S. and the
Yuriy Gagarin, a soviet army major, remained in the orbit for 1 hour and 48 minutes. It proved that human beings can survive in space. This success was utilized by the Soviet Union as a political victory and accelerated the space race between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
1962 - First successful interplanetary mission. NASA probes Venus
Results :Proved that interplanetary space has a continued "solar wind." Obtained basic measurements of atmosphere composition. Established communication with the spacecraft in the vicinity of Venus. They studied interplanetary magnetic field and environment of charges particles. In the future this will be used for space travel. All basic calculations were conducted with success. The first evidence of surface being extremely hot, unsuitable for life as we know it, with upper atmospheric temperature being milder. It was discovered that Venus had either no magnetic field or a very weak one; in the future the latter was proved to be true.
Mission : Launched August 27, 1962
Destination : Reached December 14, 1962
Objectives : Reach Venus in a fly-by mode. Determine temperature on the surface.
Living on Mars
Living on Mars cannot be considered entirely risk-free, in particular during the first few years. Living there is comparable to getting by on Antarctica, and provides similar challenges. However, the South Pole now has a number of very advanced, large research stations that boast a great deal of modern facilities that provide a good quality of life. These looked very different 50 years ago. The Mars settlement will develop in the same way.
The new Home away from Home
Americans on Mars
Whereas winged flight was developed mostly through the efforts of individual enthusiasts, inventors and entrepreneurs, the exploration of space demanded the resources that only a large nation could command. The basic of flight into space were simple enough. Given a sufficiently powerful thrust, any object could theoretically be flung either into orbit or beyond the pull of Earth’s gravity. But in practice such a venture posed daunting problems -- requiring rockets with awesome power, space vehicles capable of withstanding extreme forces and temperatures, communication and control systems of great precision, and support systems to sustain life outside the atmosphere. That space travel has become a reality is a supreme example of organization and technological innovations, as well as individual human courage.
STS-107 — Jan. 16, 2003
Crew and Vehicle lost during landing approach on Feb. 1, 2003
Columbia's successful completion of the Orbital Flight Test Program — missions STS-1 through 4 — proved that a winged, reusable spaceship could successfully operate in space.
Atlantis was the first shuttle to launch an interplanetary probe. During a four-day mission in 1989, astronauts launched the Magellan spacecraft from the cargo bay of Atlantis.
1982, 10 missions
The year 1986 was to be the biggest year for the Space Shuttle yet. A total of 15 flights were planned: including the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Gailieo and Ulysses space probes, and the first launch from Vandenburg Air Force Base in California. By 1988, NASA was hoping to launch 24 shuttle missions per year. (The most ever achieved was nine. The shuttle cannot fly much more than this in a year.) But the events of a cold day in January would forever alter these plans.
Tereshkova was launched aboard Vostok 6 on June 16, 1963 and became the first woman to fly in space. During the 70.8 hour flight, Vostok 6 made 48 orbits of Earth. Upon completion of her mission, Tereshkova was honored with the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
John H. Glenn first American to orbit earth
later becomes the oldest person in space
1971 - Salyut 1: The First Space Station
Results: First crew that attempted to dock with the space station failed to do so. Second screw successfully inhabited the space station, conducting experiments for almost 24 days. Problem with a hatch in the return vehicle depressurized the cabin, suffocating all three astronauts. Their names were: Georgi Dobrovolski, Viktor Patsayev, Vladislav Volkov. This led to enhancement of the Soyus spacecraft design, allowing astronauts to constantly have their pressurized space suits on. The three perished astronauts proved that a space station can be operated by the crew on board and paved way to all future artificial habitats in space.
Objectives: Test basic conditions on a space station and conduct experiments.
1973 - Skylab
Mission Launched: May 14, 1973
Deorbited: July 11, 1979
Objectives: Skylab program objectives were twofold: To prove that humans could live and work in space for extended periods, and to expand our knowledge of solar astronomy well beyond Earth-based observations.
Results: Three-man crews occupied the Skylab workshop for a total of 171 days and 13 hours. It was
the site of nearly 300 scientific and technical experiments, including medical experiments on humans' adaptability to zero gravity, solar experiments and detailed Earth resources experiments.
1976 - NASA's Viking program reveals Mars for the first time
Viking 1: August 20, 1975
Viking 2: September 9, 1975
Viking 1 orbiter: June 19, 1976
Viking 1 lander: July 20, 1976
Viking 2 orbiter: August 7, 1976
Viking 2 lander: September 3, 1976
Map Martian surface using Viking orbiters, taking high resolution images. Establish whether or not there is life on Mars and take photographic images of the surface from Viking landers
97% of Martian surface was mapped. Composition of the atmosphere measured. No life detected on the surface of Mars. Mission lasted in a limited capacity till 1982.
1979 - Saturn is visited for the first time
by an interplanetary probe Pioneer 11
Results STS-1 mission was a success. The Shuttle proved itself fully capable of accomplishing designated tasks. The Shuttle, though gradually modernized, served for 30 years, carrying cargo and astronauts into the orbit, until 2011.
Guion Bluford, the first African American in space
Early in the morning of Aug. 30, 1983, Guion Bluford sat strapped in his seat aboard the space shuttle Challenger, preparing to make history. NASA had launched 38 space missions with 92 crew members prior to Bluford’s flight. All had been white males with the exception of Sally Ride, who flew the flight immediately before.
First American woman in space
Prior to her first space flight, she was subject to media attention due to her gender. During a press conference, she was asked questions like, "Will the flight affect your reproductive organs?" and "Do you weep when things go wrong on the job?" Despite this and the historical significance of the mission, Ride insisted that she saw herself in only one way—as an astronaut. On June 18, 1983, she became the first American woman in space as a crew member on space shuttle Challenger for STS-7.
Mae Carol Jemison is an American physician and NASA astronaut. She became the first black woman to travel in space when she went into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on September 12, 1992.
1990 - Hubble Space Telescope
Results: Overall, scientific work, that resulted from the Hubble Telescope, exceeded expectations. It established the rate of the expansion of the Universe more accurately than ever before. Allowed to establish the age of the Universe more precisely. Found that the expansion of the Universe was accelerating, ratherthan decelerating as was previously thought. Helped to better understand Dark Energy and Dark Matter, though still not conclusively nor entirely. Proved Black Holes to be real beyond doubt, they were also found to be present in center of virtually every galaxy. The Hubble established an intricate relationship between Galaxies and their Black Holes. Expanded our understand of gamma ray bursts. Found first evidence of extrasolar (beyond our Solar System) planets, later confirmed a number of extrasolar planets and provided us with fascinating information regarding their composition and dynamics. Obtained images of galaxies billions of years away, providing humanity with a glimpse into the cosmic past. Provided useful experience in terms of conducting complex repairs in orbit, a totalof five such missions were undertaken using the Shuttle.
Mission Launched: April 24, 1990
DestinationRreached: April 24, 1990
Objectives: Conduct observations of Cosmos using Wide Field and Planetary Camera, Goddard
High Resolution Spectrograph, High Speed Photometer, Faint Object Camera, and Faint Object Spectrograph.
Discovery logged a total of 365 days in space. The miles traveled by Discovery could have carried it to the moon and back more than 300 times.
The orbiter carried John Glenn on its STS-95 mission when the astronaut was 77. Glenn thus became the oldest person ever to reach space.
1991, 25 missions
Much of the orbiter was built from spare parts left over from the construction of the shuttles Discovery and Atlantis.
A planet outside our Solar System is detected & confirmed, for the first time Astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail discovered first confirmed exoplanet. People had assumed and speculated about the existence of planets outside our Solar System before, but this discovery launched a massive, international hunt for extra solar planets, also known as exoplanets. Both planets are believed to be of chthonian class, which means that they are former Gas Giants, whose atmosphere was stripped due to extreme proximity to a star. These planets are regarded as deadly for life as we know it.
Soviet-Russian space station Mir is completed
First Module Launched: February 19, 1986
Space Station Completed: April 26, 1996
Objectives: Launch and assemble in space six modules; Mir core module, Kvant-1, Kvant-2, Kristall, Spektr and Priroda. Mir was to operate in low Earth orbit as a scientific laboratory, in a unique microgravitational environment, continuing the legacy of the Soviet Salyut space stations. Crew would conduct experiments primarily in biology, human biology, astrophysics, astronomy, Earth meteorology and prepare for the future colonization of outer space.
Results: The last crew visited Mir in 2000, for repair works. The space station broke numerous space-related records, which were later surpassed by the International Space Station. Launching of the post-soviet (1991) modules was greatly delayed, as Mir was transferred from the collapsed Soviet Union to the Russian Federation. In 1992 NASA became intrically involved in what became known as the Shuttle-Mir programme. In 1995 an American Docking Module was installed for easier access via the Space Shuttle. Russian, American and other astronauts from around the world worked onboard the Mir space station. The success of international cooperation on Mir served as foundation for the International Space Station