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History and Bias TOK Presentation

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by

Alexis Lucero

on 6 December 2016

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Transcript of History and Bias TOK Presentation

Lexi Lucero
In 2015, Japanese middle school textbooks were found revised in order to entirely leave out the historical event of the 1937 Nanjing Massacre prior to World War II, irking China and South Korea about their actions
RLS
Japan decides to create a "hidden curriculum" (where its a curriculum that contains "unwritten, unofficial, and often unintended lessons, values, and perspectives")

In this case, it was done in belief that the new textbooks offer a “better balance” for generations of children to learn about their country

This raises concern on how truthful history is written and if history is overall biased
RLS Extraction
To what extent is history written by national bias?
KQ
WOKs
Memory: How we remember such events and/or how we were taught about them
example: Over time a certain event (like 9/11) can be told by different kinds of people who have different perspectives of the story, and some of these perspectives can influence and change your memory of this event

Reason: Reasoning is used to interpret events in history in our own view
example: An African textbook may call Westerns forcefully coming to their land an invasion, while a Western textbook talking of the same event may call it colonization.
WOKs
History and Bias
Key Terms
Bias
in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair

Hidden curriculum
retelling of an event that makes it sound justified, or completely disregarding the event itself

History
the study of past events, particularly in human affairs.
Sources
http://www.wsj.com/articles/japanese-middle-school-textbook-changes-raise-irk-china-south-korea-1428402976
http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum/
http://www.historydiscussion.net/history/objectivity-and-bias-in-the-study-of-history/632
https://explorable.com/research-bias
http://www.psychologicalscience.org/news/full-frontal-psychology/a-bias-against-creativity.html#.WD9gaeQzVUQ
https://explorable.com/research-bias
http://www.delval.edu/news/can-historians-be-objective-and-should-they-be
Conclusion
History is completely written by national bias
Each national perspective in history is different from one another depending on the event that has occurred
From there history is written by all of this bias and what they believe
AOKs
Natural Sciences: Experimental bias, where the results of an experiment are influenced in order to gain a certain outcome
example: A research into the health benefits of acai berries may neglect the researcher’s awareness of limitations in the sample group, as the group being tested may be a certain gender, or a certain age

The Arts: Bias can be found in levels of creativity, to where at times we don't even value it
example: Vincent Van Gogh was very underappreciated in his lifetime as he created more than 2000 works in his entire life yet only sold a few of them, but today he's known for being one of the world's finest artists and his works are worth millions.

AOKS
Counterclaim:
Counterclaim: While bias may be used, each perspective of this national bias overall creates the truth when put together, thus history isn't actually biased but objective.
RLS: The U.S. viewed the Cold War as a war to prevent the spread of communism because of its hostility against it. The USSR viewed it as a war as preventing the spread of capitalism because of its hostility against it.
With both perspectives, it can be said as a fact that the tensions had rose between the two because of their views on both sides' political ideologies, and the Cold War occurred between them from this in 1945
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