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Russia + Japan: Industrialization Outside the West
Transcript of Russia + Japan: Industrialization Outside the West
However, she welcomed western culture and education.
Russia mostly succeeds in avoiding revolutions that spread through Europe, despite the Decembrist Uprising in 1825. Picking on the Ottomans Real Reform in Russia Trans-Siberian Railroad Protest + Revolution Bolsheviks Revolution of 1905 Japan: Transformation without Revolution Meiji Restoration Leads to Imperial Power Japan Russia remained mostly agricultural and economically stagnant. They did not industrialize in the early 1800s.
Russians were happy to take on the weaker Ottomans. However, France and Britain wanted to limit Russian aggression.
British + French backed Ottomans in the 1854 Crimean War and the Western forces won. Czar Alexander II realized that
serfdom didn't fit the needs of Russia if it was going to modernize to compete with the West.
He issued the Emancipation Edict in 1861, freeing the serfs.
Serfs received land but no political rights. However, emancipation did create a large urban labor force which helped out with industrialization. The creation of a railroad system connecting Europe to the Pacific accelerated industrialization.
Factories popped up in Moscow, St. Petersburg, etc. These factories were huge but not up to current western standards.
Agricultural techniques also lagged behind the West since serfs had no money or incentive to change. Intelligentsia (intellectuals) called for political and social reform.
Activists sometimes used violence. One such group was the anarchists. They wanted to abolish all formal government.
Another group was the Marxists, who adopted Karl Marx's ideas to Russian reform.
Vladimir Lenin organized a segment of the Marxists called the Bolsheviks.
Unionized workers were attracted to the Bolshevik's idea of a proletarian (worker's) revolution.
Radical groups like the Bolsheviks, along with the czarist regime's opposition to change and compromise combine to create a very dangerous and explosive situation. Political and social unrest took place in 1905. To make matters worse mighty Russia lost to tiny Japan in the Russo-Japanese War.
Workers marched to Czar Nicholas II's palace to demonstrate in demand of reforms.
They were met by troops who opened fire on the unarmed crowd.
This led to formation of the Duma - a national parliament - and the Stolypin reforms that gave the serfs some greater freedom. BUT... it was too little, too late. Bloody Sunday Isolation ends with the arrival of American ships in 1853, forcing Japan open to U.S. commerce.
The Japanese realize they must adapt or face domination by the West.
Emperor Meiji is restored to power in 1868. (Meiji Restoration) Samurai were disbanded and an era of westernization began.
Japan industrialized very quickly and wasted no time flexing its new technological muscle.
Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War in 1895 and then beat the Russians in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904. Japan now controlled Korea, Taiwan and Manchuria - the beginning of an East Asian empire. Russia gets DeMongolized After overthrowing Mongol rule in 1480, a series of Ivans became czars of Russia. (Czar=Caesar)
Russians consider Moscow to be the "3rd Rome" - the natural successor as the center of Orthodox Christianity after Constantinople.
When the Ivan line of succession ends, the Romanovs take power through election. The Romanov Dynasty will rule until 1917. The Russian Bear Under the Ivans, Russian peasants called Cossacks increase Russia's territory in the east.
Romanov rulers (Peter and Catherine the Great) westernize Russia through cities (St. Petersburg), dress, education and clothing styles. Through war and diplomacy, Catherine gained more territory to the west.
One thing that doesn't change is the dependence on agriculture for wealth. The Romanovs maintain serfdom and most Russians have a pretty miserable existence.
Japan rejects the West In 1600, a slow pattern of exposure to the West and Christianity came to an end.
The new ruler, the Shogun Tokugawa, became more powerful than the emperor or the daimyo (feudal lords), and by his order Japan began to isolate itself and turn inward. (similar to China)
This was made official in the National Seclusion Policy. Japanese were forbidden to travel abroad and most foreigners were kept out. This seclusion lasted nearly 200 years. Commodore