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The War Of 1812

A matter of opinion

Serena Thapar

on 17 January 2015

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Transcript of The War Of 1812

The War Of 1812 A Recount Of An Important Time In History By: Serena Thapar, Shani Ackerman, Samuel Chen, Alon Belillti, and Sarah Brooke From The Perspective Of: Leader In 1812: King George III Leader in 1812: Tecumseh Leader in 1812: John Strachan Leader in 1812: President James Maddison In order for us to come to conclusions as to who we thought won the war of 1812, we needed to gather quite a bit of background knowledge. This is why we took a look at this war from all the different perspectives to get a full understanding of what truly happened during this time period. Important People In The War of 1812 The Canadians: Laura Secord John Strachan The British Sir Isaac Brock Heroic Aspects Challenges Tecumseh The First Nations Richard Pierpoint The Alien Act Major Battles ~Serena and Sarah Battle of Put-In-Bay Battle of Lundy's Lane Battle of Chateguay Battle of Queenston Heights The Treaty of Ghent William Hull The Rideau Canal ~Samuel and Alon Loyalists Justification of Acts From 1812 Who I Think Won The War of 1812... Black Loyalists Vs. First Nation Allies The First Nations and the Black Loyalists had many similarities and differences. Both joined allies with the British in order to receive something that they may have wanted in return. The First Nations became allies with Britain to fight against the United States to receive western territory. However, the Black Loyalists joined with the British in order to receive freedom from slavery and land in Nova Scotia.~Shani William Hull feels that the First Nations are doing anything they can to impact the Americans in a negative way. He states that Americans give the First Nations what they need and he doesn’t understand why they help the British against them when the Americans don’t want to do anything to harm them. ~Shani According to Hull’s proclamation, how did he view Britain’s First Nation allies? Use evidence from the primary source to support this. How were the First Nations allies similar and different than the Black Loyalists? Why do you think Hull issued such a strong warning about working with the First Nations? Hull issued such a strong warning about working with the first Nations because he wanted to win the war. His intention was to have Britain lose their allies. Britain greatly relied on First Nations to help them as there wasn’t much Canadian militia and British militia available. This way if Britain refused to work with the First Nations, they would be at a visible disadvantage. ~Shani Chief Tecumseh was born in 1768 in part of the Shawnee Nation clan. He was a very important person in history as he was the leader of this First Nations clan. He became allies with Britain when he was approached by Sir Isaac Brock. He helped them during the War of 1812. He engaged in two separate battles; one which was to invade Detroit and the other was the Battle of Thames on Oct. 5, 1813. He later died in October of the same year. ~Shani Richard Pierpoint was born in Africa in the year 1746. He was a black loyalist and was taken into slavery in his teenage years. During the American Revolution he joined the Butlers Rangers based in Fort Niagara and once it was over settled nearby. During the war of 1812 he organized a Black Military better known as the Colored Corps. They fought in the Battle of Queenston Heights and Battle of Fort George. He later died in 1837 after serving for his country and living with the pride of knowing that he saved so many innocent lives. ~Shani A victory is when one side of the war defeats the other. The other side is forced to surrender and accept the consequences. For example, loosing land, rights, or freedom.
Although America won eight battles of the war and Britain won seven. In the last battle, Battle of Lundy’s Lane both sides suffered a lot of casualties. The Americans then backed out, and built defence on Fort Erie. The British prepared for another attack from the Americans but it never happened. Soon after, the war came to an end and a treaty was signed.The main reasons Americans started the war against the British in Canada was: The impressment of the American sailors into the British navy. And British supporting the First Nations by helping them defend their own land from the American settlers.They attempted to take over Canada but did not succeed because the British in Canada fought hard to defend their country. In this point of view, the American lost. Also, the war between Britain and France ended. And the British stopped the impressment of the American soldiers. Therefore, the American’s main reason for war was gone.
Overall, in the War of 1812 there were many different perspectives. Both sides claimed their own victory. In my opinion, there was no real winner in the War of 1812. The American lost their interest to fight and the Canadian succeeded by protecting their land. ~Shani She was born in 1775 in Massachusetts. Her family moved to Queenston in 1795. During the war of 1812, her family was forced to house American soldiers and overheard men discussing plans of an American attack on the British at Bearer Dams (Thorold, Ontario). On Jun 13, 1813, she went to warn the British. She had to walk 32km through dangerous forest and met a group, the Haudenossaunee people who were allies with the British. They brought her to General Fitzgibbon, leader of British forces. The British then fought off the Americans, taking all but six prisoners. She earned a 100 euro reward from the prince of whales. She died in 1868 at the age of 93. ~Alon and Samuel John Strachan was born in 1778 in Scotland and immigrated to Upper Canada in 1799. He was also an Anglican Priest. He was chaplain for the troops during the War of 1812. On April 7, 1813, the British had retreated from burning down and looting. Strachan was the only leader to meet with American General Henry Dearborn. Strachan negotiated the surrender of York with it’s citizens. ~Alon and Samuel Why do you think the government of Upper Canada enacted the Alien Act? Do you think this was fair or unfair? Explain. I think the government enacted the Alien Act because they wanted to punish whoever helped the Americans. This act made it illegal to have gone to the United States after the war began in July 1812.I think this is unfair for the Americans because people make mistakes and those are tough times. It was hard to conclude who to trust and who not to. At the time, some people were forced to do things they didn’t expect to and they shouldn’t be punished for what they didn’t do. ~Alon and Samuel What did loyal British North American’s receive for their loyalty? Do you agree or disagree with this reward? Explain. All militia members and their families wanted to be remembered for their brave deeds for Britain. Those who survived were eligible for land grants. The amount of land a militia member received land near the US, so if there was another invasion, they could be called back to fight. Widows of militia members who had died or those injured in the war received a small pension. How much they received also depended on their husband’s rank and length of service. John Strachan also started The Loyal and Patriot Fund which helped widows and orphans. I think it is very fair for the Militia members to receive land and money for their loyalty. ~Alon and Samuel Who led the construction of the Rideau Canal? Who worked on the Canal?
Lieutenant Colonel John led by The Construction of the Rideau Canal. The Royal Engineers began to design and build the Rideau Canal in 1825. The workers who built the Canal were mostly Irish immigrants and French Canadians. How long is the canal? What is its purpose?
The canal has 50 dams and 47 locks, and is a total of 200km long. The purpose of the Rideau Canal was to form a transportation link between Montréal and Kingston. Where were the headquarters for this project? What is its name?
The headquarters was set up by Lieutenant Colonel John By at the Rideau and Ottawa Rivers. The name given to the headquarters was Bytown, named after Lieutenant colonel John By. What other projects are planned to improve British North America’s defence?
British North America’s ability to defend itself included many improvements such as a naval base at Penetanguishene, building Fort Henry in Kingston, and expansions to the forts at York, Mississauga, and Amhertsburg. Roads were also expanded, and plans for future railways were to be built at a safe distance from the border. What effects are all of these projects having on the economy of British North America?
The biggest effect of these improvement projects had on British North America’s economy was the creation of thousands of jobs. In this author’s opinion, what is the biggest victory from the War of 1812?
The biggest victory from the war of 1812 was national pride, going. I believe this because, before the National Pride, nobody felt Canadian. They were British, French or Loyalists the crisis created a strong bond between them. Do you think that Britain was justified in boarding American Ships in search of sailors? Explain why or why not. I believe that Britain was completely justified in boarding American ships. It was a time of war and it was a matter of life or death. The clever and brave who availed at any opportunity and the ones who won, not those who were concerned for others. The boarding of American ships took place in June of 1807. The British crew perused, attacked and boarded the American frigate looking for sailors to join the British Navy. Britain was blockading the French warships to prevent Napoleon from invading Britain, and they felt the need to improve their navy. It was simply a defense tactic which is allowed in battles. It was one of the major acts which provoked Americans to declare war against Britain. ~Serena Sir Isaac Brock was born in Channel Islands, England in 1769. He chose a military career and was sent to British North America. He joined forces with Tecumseh and other First Nation groups to attack American forts once the war of 1812 had begun. On August 16, they approached Detroit and Hull surrendered almost immediately. However, Brock later passed in the battle of Queenston Heights on October 15, 1812 . He gave hope to Canadians to show them that they could defeat Americans. He took it upon himself to gain First Nation allies and taught Canadians how to defend themselves. He will be forever remembered for his determination and great contribution to the war of 1812. ~Serena Brock must have been considered more than a hero. He taught British North American Troops how to defend themselves from whatever harm Americans brought and his efforts were a direct result that caused the outcome of the War of 1812. He was willing to risk his life to defend the country he cared for. He took leadership to create First Nation alliances which is something Canadians couldn't do on their own. Many of the citizens felt that there was nothing to do to stop Americans from invading. However, it took lots of determination for Brock to change their perspective, and allow them to see that they were capable of more than they gave themselves credit for. He is the one who shaped the war and was a hero to all Canadians. ~Serena Sir Isaac Brock faced many challenges throughout his life. A specific challenge that Brock faced was the fact that at the time most British troops were dealing with Napoleonic battles, leaving the Canadian militia and few British troops fighting against America outnumbered. In order to use this to their advantage, Brock taught them to act like there were more of them than there were Americans. In some cases, this caused the Americans to withdraw from battles including the battle of Queenston Heights and battle of Châteguay. Overall, the largest factor that was a challenge was trust and loyalty. Many of the people who abandoned the United States after or during the American revolution were located near the border and it was believed that they may simply allow U.S troops in. He proclaimed that there would be consequences for those in alliance with the U.S and he stationed militia at the border in case of invasion. Even though things weren't always in Brock's favor, he always found a way to overcome anything that stood in the way of his performing to the best of his ability. ~Serena Brock left Fort George on Oct. 13, 1812 with his small troops to deal with American invaders He was shot then passed away, however, during the second phase of the battle General Sheafee led militia and First Nations Americans withdrew after thinking they were outnumbered In September of 1813, British near Detroit were facing a harsh winter Americans had an advantage on the Great Lakes because most of the British Navy was blockading the American cost British and American ships fought on Sept. 10 and by then end , Americans had control of Lake Erie and the British ships Fought on October 25, 1813 between British forces( First Nations and Canadian militia) and American forces Americans wanted to invade Montreal to cut off the supply line between Montreal and Kingston, hoping to gain some control A lack of communication on behalf of the Americans caused them to believe they were outnumbered Battle was fought in a time span of 5hrs in Niagara Falls, 1814 Lots of confusion; the British accidentally fired at their own men and Americans bayoneted their own forces British prepared for a second battle which didn't occur and both sides claimed victory out of confusion Soon after the Battle of Lundy's Lane in 1814, the war came to an end. The Americans backed out after the British had finished fighting in the Napoleonic war stopped impressing American ships. Americans no longer had any reason to continue the war and they knew that if they did, more powerful British troops would begin to join the war and invade America. The war officially ended when the two colonies negotiated over a period of five months to eventually sign the Treaty of Ghent in Belgium; Dec. 24, 1814. This treaty did not exactly say anything about who won the war, but rather indirectly explained that no one ended up winning the war and no one lost. This is supported in the treaty when it explains that the boundaries stayed the same as before the war started . It obliquely explains that there was no point in having the war because neither side won anything and both sides lost many people fighting to save innocent lives. Overall, this treaty did not do much except end the war because in the end nothing changed.
~ Serena and Sarah Based on the information provided in the text book, do you think that the Americans were justified in declaring war? Explain. In my opinion, the Americans were justified in declaring war. I think that because in the text it is demonstrated that the Americans were being mistreated by the British. For example, it says that the American accused the British of encouraging the First Nations to be hostile towards them. Also, as a result of Britain’s blockade of Europe, the American economy suffered as well. The Americans lost a major market as a result of Britain blocking the trade of European countries with France. Lastly, the “War Hawks” was a group of American politicians who believed that the United States needs to expand its borders. The American president at that time, President James Madison, was very much influenced by this group and on June 19, 1812, he declared war on Britain. ~Sarah As you read the primary source, list more examples of facts, opinions and arguments of American General Hull.
The organizational pattern that I see on page 176 is a Chronological order. I know that because the descriptive paragraphs use words such as: first, second and finally. In addition the last paragraph uses the word :”however”, which tells me that the paragraph also uses a compare and contrast organizational pattern. he map on page 176 indicates that my group (the Americans) was doing well during the war of 1812. It had a similar amount of victories as the British. The map also shows that the area between Fort Erie and Queenstone Heights seemed to be an area where either side did not win. They were still fighting over that area. Facts:
-anyone who participates in the war will be treated as the enemy
-the first nations were killing our citizens, and butcher our women, children
-this war is a war of killing only
-the United States has been forced to take up arms
-I promise to protect people in our country and to bring peace, to defend your rights, and property
-Hull comes to protect, not to injure Upper Canadians
-I come to help the Canadians but not to hurt the enemies

~Sarah I think that the government of Upper Canada created the Alien Act because they did not trust those citizens that supported the Americans during the war. The British colonies wanted to prevent any British colonist to show support to that that is consider “the enemy”. The Act prohibited British colonist to go to the United States after the war began. As a result of this Act 15 people were convicted. Eight people who were found guilty and were sentenced to death. I think that the Act was not fair. I believe that people should have the freedom to decide which side they want to support in times of war. People should be able to make choices regarding their political views without being afraid that they will be prosecuted for that. ~Sarah I believe that the War of 1812 was a draw. Even though the British did achieve their land, many people died, but not much of the U.S.A or Canada changed. Although it was a draw for the British and Americans, there was a loss. A loss for who? A loss for the First Nations. Americans and Canadians took over many places of American and Canada forcing the First Nations to migrate from one place to another. ~Samuel I believe that the Americans won the War of 1812 due to the most amounts of victory during the War of 1812. Since they had more winds than the others, they either had a smart plan during war or they possibly overpowered the others with force. There were more Americans than the British which caused the Americans to over power and win against others. In the Battle of Put-In-Bay, the Americans outsmarted the British by knowing the British were busy blockading the American coast. The Americans caused the British to not send as many ships as they planned to, to the Great Lakes. The British attacked nine American ships even knowing they only had six ships September 10. Finally, the Americans captured and controlled British ships and Lake Erie. ~Alon In my opinion, I truly believe that there was no real winner of the war of 1812, just as many others do. The Treaty of Ghent that was signed on December 24, 1814 that indirectly explained that there was no winner or any point in having this war. It clearly outlined that everything would return to the "status quo anti bellum", meaning that neither side benefited from any territory they may have gained throughout the war. Furthermore, Britain and America lost their access to First Nation allies.t was a draw because no one gained anything from this, especially the First Nations who are still being impacted by this today. Having lost relationships between the countries they lived in, effects how they are treated today and how they are isolated from the rest of the world. In this war, there was no clear winner because neither side won substantially more battles than the other. You cannot determine a winner when the results are very close, if anything it would mean that this battle truly was a stalemate. There is no clear cut answer that states who won the war. This means that as long as you have the facts to support what you think, anything could be correct. If one believes that Britain as well as their allies were the winners of the war of 1812, they may hold this opinion due to all the reasons in Britain's favor. They were fighting two wars simultaneously, and the Napoleonic war had the potential to do much harm. However, throughout both wars, Britain remained confident and everything turned out just the way they wanted it. They didn't loose any possession of territory as a result of the Napoleonic war as well as the war of 1812. However, others do believe that America won the War, and there are good reasons for thinking that. It is a fact that the Americans won more battles within this war and that would have to mean that they were doing something right. Winning means that you achieve what you set out to, and that is exactly what the Americans did. Although, the main reason to support the fact that America won, was the Battle of New Orleans. Americans defeated the invading British army whose intent was to seize New Orleans and the immense territory surrounding. This battle is known as the utmost American land victory of this war. As of yet, there is no right answer, nor do I think there will ever be. Although, none of that matters. The war has ended and effects the way we live today. We cannot go back and change history, so we must live with what we have learned from it. Thank you for listening to our presentation on the importance of the War Of 1812 and hopefully you have learned a great deal about this important time in history.
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