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Social Psychology, Part Deux

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Kathryn Rabak

on 9 November 2012

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Transcript of Social Psychology, Part Deux

Social Psychology - group = important
- no allies
- group = 3(+)
- collectivist culture Giving in to NSI:
When and Why Part Deux Jálynn Larry & Kathryn Rabak Normative Social
Influence Biological Influence: Attitudes Discrimination (n.) unjustified negative or harmful action towards a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group Stereotype (n.) a generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members Stereotypes Discrimination "changing one’s behavior due to the real or imagined influence of others" The Halo Effect

- "Beauty is Good" Stereotype
- Examples? Festinger, Schachter, & Back (1950) Housing Study

- demonstrates the role of functional distance in attraction and propinquity Informational
Social Influence Similarity Physical Attractiveness Proximity Conformity Persuasion Attitudes and
Persuasion Pro- and Antisocial
Behavior Where do attitudes come from? Relationships Changing
Attitudes Stereotyping,Prejudice, &
Discrimination Prejudice and Self-Esteem Prejudice (n.) a hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely upon their membership in that group
- a ubiquitous social phenomenon; one of the most common and dangerous social behaviors Groups Social Facilitation The tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance is being evaluated Deindividuation: Group Decision Making via
persuasion via behavior change Techniques Fear: scare so you can relieve

Emotions as a heuristic: 'How do I feel about it?'

Interaction with type of attitude Authority Sherif (1936) Autokinetic Effect Altruism Cooperation Aggression A major determinant of who we end up being attracted to, and one of the simplest determinants of interpersonal attraction

3 main reasons:

- Availability

- Anticipation of Interaction

- Mere Exposure Effect
Another major source of attraction

Do opposites attract?
- Over 200+ studies say "NO!" The Propinquity Effect others act as a source of information to guide our behavior:
we conform because we believe that others’ interpretation
of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours
and will help us choose an appropriate course of action The Importance of Being Accurate
Downsides: War of the Worlds and contagion What is attractive? Physical Attractiveness

Why is attractiveness so important? distant light in a dark room, estimate how many inches it moves (range 1 to 10 in.)

groups of 3: common estimate, every member of the group conformed

public or private acceptance the influence of others that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them; this type of conformity results in public compliance with the group’s beliefs/behaviors but not necessarily private acceptance Ridicule, punishment, rejection, attention
The Importance of Being Accurate Berns et. al (2005) mental rotation task matching two 3D images
fMRI
normatively agreeing with group
opinion
maintained independence and
disagreed with group

when conforming: activation in vision and perception (similar to when giving answers without confederates/potential disapproval)

when standing out: visual/perceptual areas of brain NOT activated
Amygdala (associated with negative emotions)
Caudate Nucleus (modulating social behavior) My Lai
Freedom Riders Attraction Social Impact Theory
Strength
Immediacy (space and time)
Number
the more people in the group, the less influence each additional person has
social impact doesn’t change much after 4 "Contrary to popular belief, I do not believe that friends are necessarily the people you like best; they are merely the people who got there first."

- Sir Peter Ustinov, Dear Me, 1977 Types of attitudes Cognitively based: beliefs about the properties of an attitude subject
Classify positives and negatives

Affectively based: feelings and values
Values, sensory reactions, aesthetic reactions, classical or operant conditioning

Behaviorally based: observations of how one behaves towards an attitude object
Self-perceptions theory – may not know how we feel about something until we look at how we behave Explicit: consciously endorse and easily report

Implicit: involuntary, uncontrollable, unconscious Foot in the door:
1. small request --> acquiescence
2. big request --> acquiescence? Social Exchange and Equity "Love is often nothing but a favorable exchange between two people who get the most of what they can expect, considering their value on the personality market." Door in the face:
1. grand request --> denial
2. reasonable request -->
acquiescence?
Low ball:
1. start low --> acceptance
2. up price last min. --> acquiescence? Ingratiation: (flattery, opinion
conformity, self presentation)
1. gain approval
2. request --> acquiescence? Norm of reciprocity:
1. do something for individual
2. request --> acquiescence? Resistance to Persuasion Attitude innoculation Awareness of product placement Resisting peer pressure Dissonance theory!
Want to make it difficult to give external justification
Want them to find internal justification

Downside: difficult to do on a broad scale Persuasive Communications Yale Attitude Change Approach Central and Peripheral Routes

CENTRAL: elaboration + listening + thinking
need: ability and motivation to listen
motivation based on:
relevance to well-being
whether the subject is personally relevant PERIPHERAL: surface factors
long or short presentation
charismatic or boring speaker
expert or novice presenter Kin Selection
Group Selection

Reciprocity Norm
Learning Social Norms

Empathy Self-Interest:
Social Exchange Theory - Erich Fromm, 1955 Vagus nerve:
'Caretaking
Nerve' via emotion IAT: but what is it really looking at? GNAT: Go/No Go Association Task Social Categorization:
Us vs. Them Milgram Experiment nothing the 'leaner' ever did caused all participants to stop obeying

situational factors, authority figure variation

less than 5% gave max. shock when they got to choose their own level - Journalist Walter Lippmann (1922) was the first to introduce the term, describing stereotypes as “the little pictures we carry around inside our heads” Who, What, and To Whom? Differences in Altruism Men vs Women

Urban vs Rural

Independent vs Interdependent Cultures

Religious vs Non Religious People

"Feel Good, Do Good"
"Feel Bad, Do Good"

Bystander Effect - Jane Elliot (1977) : 3rd grade teacher who wanted to teach her students about prejudice and discrimination in rural Iowa, after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Importance of Relationships Attachment Styles Communal vs. Exchange "Intentional action aimed at doing harm or causing pain," may be physical or verbal, hostile or instrumental Hobbes vs. Rousseau When will people act aggressively? Count to 10: Reducing aggression Evolutionary, Cultural, and Biological Factors Groups, Social Norms, & Social Roles Group (n.) Three or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other

Why do people form groups?

The role of social norms and social roles within groups
- The cost of social roles 4 main reasons for the effect of similarity on attraction Prison Guard Study (Zimbardo et al., 1971) Why?
- The presence of others makes us more alert

- The presence of others can be seen as an evaluative force

- The presence of others is distracting Getting Lost in the Crowd The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be identified

- Increases obedience to group norms

- Reduces feelings of responsibility and accountability

- Deindividuation on the Internet
- Romantic Relationships Defining Love
- Companionate Love vs. Passionate Love

Companionate Love : The intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person, but do not experience passion or arousal in the person’s presence

Passionate Love: An intense longing we feel for a person, accompanied by physiological arousal; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstasy, but when it is not, we feel sadness and despair

Cultural differences

Evolutionary approach to love Secure
Insecure-ambivalent
Insecure-avoidant
Disorganized / disoriented Secure
Anxious-preoccupied
Dismissive-avoidant
Fearful-avoidant -->
-->
-->
--> Pairings Doomed, or Changeable? Biological Influence THANK YOU!! the process by which the components of a system work together to achieve the global properties Healing: Robbers Cave Prisoner's dilemma Communal:
primary concern = other
no 'tally' of deeds
ex: parent/child, partner, best friend Exchange:
primary concern = equity
"What have they done for me lately?
ex: lab partner, new friend, stranger
Full transcript