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zuan azraee

on 23 October 2013

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Conceptual framework
Basically, the race can be considered as a social group with a collective identity token based physical characteristics of biological obvious, such as skin color, eye color, hair color and so on. The striking feature is used to distinguish human groups is skin color.

Smedley - culture is a phenomenon studied by individuals and groups can change their ethnic or cultural identity through processes such as migration and conversion.

Carter and Qureshi - a system of understanding and behavior that inherited from one generation to another generation.

Culture gives identity to a group in terms of how to manage their lives.

Two major roles for the formation of a culture:

Create the country's image towards creating personality and identity.

Fostering national consciousness and nationalism characterized by spiritual, humanitarian, spiritual and mental.

Negative views about members or other ethnic groups not generally accurate based on information and usually not in the open.

Faiths and negative feelings about members or other group of ethnic. Generally, the opinion or belief is general and is not based on clear information.

A general statement to a particular ethnic group either negative or negative form.

The concept of stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination

Malacca empire known as the 'Venice of the East'.
Plural society naturally-formed by interaction of local and foreign traders.

Malay Sultanate of Malacca

Port of Malacca became a meeting place of traders from all over the world.
The palace officials not only consists of the local Malays, but also India.
There were also mixed marriage between the daughter of the ruler of Melaka Chinese government.
Age is not a nation-state era in which traders do not need a passport or visa.


In short, the days of the Malacca greatness can be seen from the following aspects:

formation of a pluralistic society in the era of british
Malaysia today is a country made ​​up of different races living in harmony and peaceful atmosphere.

This is a result of tolerance and cooperation among the races that existed since the British gave independence to Malaya until the present day.

In essence, the Malays, Chinese and Indians are the main ethnic group in Malaysia, followed by some other minority groups including Aboriginal, Christian and Sikh.

History proves the Malay community has long had a relationship with the Chinese and India since the time of the Malacca Sultanate.

Inter-ethnic relations is becoming increasingly apparent in the British administration. British colonial immigrants move beyond primarily from China and India to work in Malaya.

Influx of foreign labor is an economic agenda for the working English tin mines and rubber plantations. This situation it can be deemed to be exploitation committed by English colonists against foreign labor and land resources in Malaya for the benefit of the industrial revolution Europe.

Apart from the inclusion of Chinese and Indian communities, migration also occur Indonesia to Malaya.

This situation is changing population patterns in Malaya from a country inhabited by the Malays to the formation of a plural society in Malaysia.

Portrait of ethnic relation
Features ras group
Ras - the men and women who share a distinctive biological characteristics inherited and can be clearly distinguished in society (Macionis 1998).
man divided KPD several categories;
 Caucasoid
 Mongoloid
 Negroid
 australoids

~ Divided on the basis of skin color, hair color and appearance.

An ideology or belief studio created to make radisional justification or explanation, so that there is inequality among different ethnic self.
Racism exists at two levels, namely at the level of individuals and institutions :
1. Individuals - occur manmade belief that there is a certain race of lower status.
2. Institution - involved the implementation of policy and discrimination, thus creating
inequality for people of different ras.
According to Yinger (1194) Ethnic groups are defined as people who take culture including customs, language, religion, uniform and originated from the same ancestors and customs related.
Ethnocentrism means a perspective view through the lens of other ethnic groups and ethnic own eyes.
Due to the influx of Chinese and Indian immigrants to Malaya in the 19th century when the British brought in immigrants to work in certain sectors not well received by the local population.
British good relations with China and India facilitates the British brought in people from these countries to British interests in Malaya.
Three ways to Malaya Chinese immigrant
1) Credit Ticket System
2) Kangchu system
3) alone
For the Indians, their immigration run through contract labor system (1820-1910) and Kangani System (1898-1938)


Split among the ethnic groups.
The Apartheid Policy


Realize of the cultural distinction.
Lives in peace


Minority group accept the culture of the
majority group without changing
their original cultural elements.



Minority group accept the culture of the dominant group.

Races/culture mixes to form a new culture. Inter-marriage

Frame Theoretical
Theoretical framework is a model that describes how a theoretical relationship with key factors that have been known in a particular problem.
Theory is a group of general propositions are interconnected and used to explain the relationship that arises between several variables that observed.

Theory is always based on fact, supported by proofs and propositions. In definition, the theory must be based on empirical facts because its main purpose is to explain and predicts reality or reality.

There are things that must be met in establishing a theoretical framework:

1. Relevant variables should be explained and mentioned in the discussion.

2. Discussions should be able to realize how two or more variables that are related to each other.

3. If the type and direction of the relationship is acceptable in theory based on previous research, then there should be an indication to the discussion of whether the relationship is positive or negative.

4. There should be a clear explanation of why we would expect this relationship persisted.

5. Schematic diagram describing the theoretical framework must be shown so that the reader can easily see and understand how the relationship between the variables theoretically.

Theoretical framework is the main foundation of the research project which is
fully addressed
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