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Transcript of Primary Sources
primary source? PRIMARY SOURCES: are materials that were
created by those who
participated in or
witnessed events of
the past PRIMARY SOURCES: are documents/artifacts
that are original to a time
and place but are a subjective interpretation of a witness to an event or activity Research Where? Primary Sources Secondary Sources Original works of literature, art, music
Newspaper accounts of events, by someone on the scene
Diary, autobiography, letters, oral testimony
Historical documents, such as laws or treaties
Television show or motion picture
Raw data from questionnaires
Observation/experiment Criticism of original work
Social science article based on another's data
Scientific article based on another's experiment assignments,
theses External Criticism:
Who, what, where, when, why?
Where was the item created?
When was the item created?
Why was the item created?
Who created the item? Internal Criticism:
What is the real and literal meaning of the item?
Can you detect any bias or prejudice that calls into question the creator’s argument or account?
Can you discover the truth of the author’s conclusions?
Do you need more information or corroborating testimony to understand the document? Analysis touch history eyewitness glimpse the past irst-hand account (a) (b) (c) * libraries
of family and friends Touch history. Create original research with artifacts. Visit an archives or library today! Remember: primary sources can be research
primary sources can be analyzed with external and internal criticism National Archives,
Robyns, Marcus C., "The Archivist as Educator: Integrating Critical Thinking Skills into Historical Research Methods Instruction." American Archivist 64:2 (Fall/Winter 2001), p. 377. Chapman University Library, http://www1.chapman.edu/library/instruction/tutorials/primary.html Chapman University Library, http://www1.chapman.edu/library/instruction/tutorials/primary.html