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And if the nature of though is not everywhere the same?
Transcript of And if the nature of though is not everywhere the same?
nd if the nature of thought
is not everywhere the same ?
Does it Matter ?
how should people think?
Teaching and testing
Early in 20th century
Why should we assume the findings are anything more than hothouse plants that have no counterpart in the real-world thought or behavior.
Ratio of the ratio above as per
relative references of
" A Chinese judge cannot think of law as an abstract entity but as a flexible quantity. Therefore Chinese justice is an
art, not a science."
Japanese boardrooms and executive councils are designed to avoid conflict and dissonance.
A Japanese scientist said that people only have debated over work in US but never in Japan.
hypothesis or proposed proposition
means of testing
arguments as to what
the evidence means
refutation of possible counterarguments
conclusion and recommendation
psychologists were asked to
find out how people thought.
" This food nourish me today; therefore, it will nourish me tomorrow' has only probabilistic status. It lacks the certainty that required syllogism. "
Riddle of introduction
that was introduced by
in the 18th.
Point out that the solution to riddle introduction.
Observed that this make reflective equilibrium shambled.
They believe that most high level reason was carried out by postformal operation - more complex and tied specific thought content.
Klaus Riegel and Michael Basseches
When westerners see East Asians treating people as if they had no rights as individuals, they tend to be able to view this only in moral terms.
and other interdependent people have their own moral objections to Western behaviour.
*They perceive issues as entailing human rights because rights are perceived as inhering in the collectivity rather than the individual
Different of religious
understood in terms of the “right/wrong”.
contrast to the “both/and’ orientation.
taught to handle with problem by using skills.
taught of how handle with theory.
The 2 main advantages of Asian cognitive standout.
1. See more of a given scene or context than westerners do.
2. The holistic, dialectic, middle way approach to problems.
* Speed and memory test that are correlated with
* Percentile score for general information in the relevant comparison population.
* The cattle cultural-fair intelligence test.
Tested the intelligence of
and elderly people in three different ways :
Example of "culture-fair" IQ test item.
a b c
d e f
a b c d
The person being tested is told to look at the block and produce a ‘
‘ and ‘
‘ by proper arrangement of the numbered pieces .
Example of Seven-coincidence Board.
A flying bird
A running bird
Example 1 :
in the general failed to recognize the role of situational constraints on a speaker's behavior whereas
were able to.
harder to detect changes in the
background of the scenes.
harder to detect changes in
objects in the foreground.
Example 2 :
Western use “
” way to looking at things.
Eastern approach on ‘
’ ，sometimes it’s easier to see problems than ‘either/or’.
think that regardless of reciprocation should be to help others.
believe that no reciprocation is an intrinsic motive to help.