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Transcript of Group 5
Group 5: Primary Source Analysis
Patriarchy in India
Pompeii As A Window On The Roman World(Visual Sources)
By Jahan Shandilya
Marcus Procius Cato
-"...Our freedom is conquered by female fury, here in the Forum it is bruised and trampled upon..."
-"Are you more charming in public with others' husbands than at home with your own?"
-"...For you to concern yourselves with laws..."
-"As soon as they begin to be your equals, they will have become your superiors..."
-"What honest excuse is offered, pray, for this womanish rebellion?"
-"Fellow citizens, do not imagine that the state which existed... will return.. . as when wild animals... and then released
-"...The matrons have publicly asked you, in peacetime... to repeal a law passed against them during... war"
-"What may I ask, are the women doing that is new..."
-"Indeed the matrons agreed to turn their gold over for the public need..."
-"All are unhappy and indignant when they see the finery denied them permitted to the... Latin allies"
-"This could wound the spirits of men; what do you think it could do to spirits of women, whom even little things disturb"
-"Of course, if you repeal the Oppian law, you will not have power to prohibit that which the law now forbids..."
-"The more power you possess, all the more moderately should you exercise your authority."
The patriarchy in India would not let a woman make her own decisions. She had to listen to and do everything her father said when she was a child and everything that her husband said when she grew up. The only way that a woman could be independent was if she became a Buddhist nun (called a bikkhuni) and entered a monastery. She would then be able to have more power than if she had grown up and gotten married. Many of the Buddhist nuns wrote poems (this collection of poems is called the Psalms of the Sisters) depicting how they felt about the patriarchy in India. These poems later became a part of the officially recognized Buddhist scriptures, the ‘Pali Canon.’
Summary of Text
Roman Women in Protest
Scenes in a Pompeii Tavern
A Domestic Shrine
Terentius Neo and His Wife
A Pompeii Banquet
Overview and Background Information
-Carthaginian Commander Hannibal (218 BCE)
-Oppian Laws (215 BCE)
-Repeal becomes issue (195 BCE)
-Famous Roman Historian Livy
-Reason for Repeal
-Congregation of Women
Takes place in China, around the late first century.
Confucianism is prevalent.
Ban Zhou (14 CE to 116 CE) is the main focus of my section.
Her book, Lessons for Women, talks about applying the principles of Confucianism to the lives of ordinary women.
She herself was a fortunate woman who had received education among other things.
Confusianism is a system of ethical and philosophical teaching by Confucius:
Jen (human heartedness)
Li (gain, benefit, order)
Chih (moral wisdom)
The list continues on...
Primary Text examples:
"On the third day after the birth of a girl the ancients observed three customs: first to place the baby below the bed; second to give her a potsherd which to play; and third to announce her birth to her ancestors by an offering."
Let a woman modestly yield to others; let her respect others; let her put others first, herself last. . . .
Let a woman be correct in manner and upright in character in order to serve her husband. . . .
Analyzing the Text:
So what can we get from this ancient text? This teaches many ways just to be humble. That is the whole point of this chapter(1). Beginning from birth, women are taught to put others before themselves. However, this is not complety bad as this shows that respect and putting others before yourself was a large part of Chinese culture. As stated in the text, women must be yielding to others, respecting others, and having good manners. While sounding somewhat foreign to us now, all this is teaching are ways to become a humble person.
Husband and Wife
Primary Text Examples:
"If a husband be unworthy, then he possesses nothing by which to control his wife. If a wife be unworthy, then she possesses nothing with which to serve her husband."
"They [Men] only know that wives must be controlled, and that the husband's rules of conduct manifesting his authority must be established."
According to the 'Rites' [a classical text], it is the rule to begin to teach children to read at the age of eight years, and by the age of fifteen years, they ought then to be ready for cultural training.
Analyzing the text:
This is somewhat self explanatory. However, Ban Zhou seems to talk to both men and women in this chapter. She explains what both men and women have to do in order to have a balanced and well connected family. Additionally, Ban Zhou doesn't seem to like that girls get "cultural" training, but men don't need it.
Respect and Caution
Primary text examples:
"Man is honored for strength; a woman is beautiful for on account of her gentleness."
"Consequently, it can be said that the Way of respect and acquiescence is woman's most important principle of conduct."
"The correct relationship between husband and wife is based upon harmony and intimacy, and conjugal love is grounded in proper union.
Analyzing the text:
This is very similar to the concept explained in the "Husband and Wife" chapter. There needs to be harmony between the husband and wife. She explains what would happen if they both disrespected each other. She also explains that a woman's most important principle of conduct is respect. However, I feel that should apply to both females
males. If both parties respect each other and no one tries to take power or disrespect the other, then there will be a balanced family and no one will be hurt.
The painting shows Terentius Neo, a business man and a public official
His wife who is not named.
"He is wearing a toga and and holding a papyrus scroll, while she wars a tunic and is holding to her lips a stylus."
Neo and his wife most likely had many slaves like most of the Roman upper class.
However, in Rome slaves and free people mingled openly.
Womanly Qualifications and Implicit Obedience
Primary text examples:
"Now what is called womanly virtue need not be brilliant ability, exceptionally better from others."
"Let a woman not act contrary to to thw wishes and the opinions of parent-in-law about right and wrong..."
The higher class would often attend lavish banquets
"Dancers, acrobats, and singers often provided entertainment..."
Elites would try to impress each other
Slaves are shown less clearly
The lower classes barely appear in Roman art
These images were painted onto a lower class inn
The first image shows a prostitute and a man
The second shows two men competing for the attention of a barmaid
The third shows two men playing dice aggressively
This, once again talks about woman and how they should act. Both of these chapters say that they should listen to their elders. Also, the top quote shows that there was not much expected from women. That could be a good or bad thing, depending on your opinion
Lararia: household shrine
"Housed painting or sculptures of lares
Lares: spirits who provided protection inside the home
Families offered up food and wine to the spirits
In the painting, two lares stand on each side
In the middle is a "genius", which was the male head of the household spirit.
The snake at the bottom represents other guardian spirits.
How are the treatments of women in China similar to India?
Both had little to no power in their lives. Only certain women had powers.
What was a way that Indian women could gain some freedom?
The woman could become a Buddhist monk.
What is a Lararia?
A household shrine.
What was the name of the person who wrote Lessons for Women?
Her name was Ban Zhou.
What is Confucianism?
The ethical and philosophical teachings of Confusions.
What is one word that describes her book?
What are the collection of poems from the Buddhist nuns called?
Psalms of the Sisters
What is a lar?
A Roman guardian household spirit.
How often were the lower classes shown in Roman art?
What is a bikkhuni?
A Buddhist Nun.
O woman well set free! how free am I,
How throughly free from kitchen drudgery!
Me stained and squalid 'mong my cooking-pots
My brutal husband ranked as even less
Than the sunshades he sits and weaves alway.
Purged now of all my former love and hate,
I dwell, musing at ease beneath the shade
Of spreading boughs - O, but 'tis well with me!
Sumangala's Mother reflects a hatred towards her former husband but an even larger hatred towards the domestic lifestyle that was her only option if she didn't become a Buddhist nun. Sumangala's Mother also says that she is 'purged of my former love and hate'. Even though becoming a Buddhist nun meant she had to leave her child and family behind, it was worth it to her and there is no sense of regret in this poem.
Psalms of the Sisters
Similaries Between Psalms of the Sisters:
Hatred towards the social system in India
Resentment towards their husbands
Very little sense of regret
Talk of the many things they had to give up to be free (family, love, etc.)
Happiness and excitement towards their new found freedom
No talk of religion (became a nun more for freedom than for religious reasons)
Stay Gucci my Friends