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Transcript of Japan
In late 18th century something similar to manga appeared but disappeared soon after because of government censorship.
The real ancestors of modern manga are the american style comic strips in late 19th.
Comic book debut in 1947.
Aimed at children.
Hayao Miyazaki was born in January 1941. He was born on the out skirts of Tokyo.
Miyazaki Teen Years
During Miyazaki teen years he wanted to become a comic book artist as Japanese comics were getting more and more popular.
Joining the Animation Industry
Anime and its crossing to the West.
The sixities and early seventies.
- During Osamu's time and around his death, there were other popular anime shows like Eight man, Gigantor and Marine boy.
Akira and its influence.
OVA = Original Video Animation
- Sony's VHS tape gave way to the OVA; straight-to-video anime. This meant that people were no longer restricted to Television or cinema. They could watch whatever they wanted whenever they wanted, and they were much cheaper to produce as well, leading to a flood of OVA series in anime.
- The golden age of anime started dying due to a market saturated in OVAs and because of Japan's declining economy.
The OVA revolution.
The 80's - The Golden age of anime.
- Macross hits US markets and becomes massively famous, leading to a large number of spin-offs and toys being made. This and Robotech was responsible for creating many third-wave anime fans.
- The 80's gave rise to some huge films other than Miyazaki films, including some Urusei Yatsura movies and three Matsumoto films; My youth in Arcadia, The Queen Millenia Movie and the second to last Yamato movie. At this time, films were getting much more expensive.
Shounen = boy
Shoujo = girl
Knight of the
Shoujo = girl
Second revolution in shoujo manga.
Otogi Manga Calendar
Miyazaki began working for Toei animation as he worked on Watchdog Woof-Woof and Wolf Boy Ken.
The forbidden zone
Studio Ghibli has made some animated films such as My Neighbor Totoro, Spirited Away,
Kiki's Delivery Service, and much more.
- A group called the starving seven were responsible for the second wave, most notably Leiji Matsumoto who created Space Blazers
The anime style was originally influenced by Disney and the Fleischer cartons, but now anime is helping to influence Western animation in more ways than we can imagine.
Towards the end of the seventies, some of the best anime was coming out such as Captain Harlock; space pirate, Space cruiser Yamato and Galaxy express. There was also Gundam, a show that became extremely famous.
- Studio Gainax revived the market with Series like 'Gunbuster' and the film 'The wings of Honneamise.' They also brought out Nadia which was considered revolutionary and hit around the time the fourth-wave in America.
- This, in turn, lead to CPM (Central-park-media) and other companies releasing 'adult' titles.
After a great deal of underwhelming anime, Studio Gainax released Neon Genesis Evangelion which created a legacy in itself.
Then came the 'avalanche' effect of anime. First, it started off slowly, but more and more anime was imported until anime started getting more expensive to get hold of.
- One Piece
- Fairy Tail
- Rurouni Kenshin
- Hunter X Hunter
- YuYu Hakusho
- Black Butler
- Pandora Hearts
- Attack On Titan
- Hellsing X
- Code Geass
- Death Note
- Full Metal Alchemist
New Treasure Island
The most important factor in the creation of modern manga is the work of one artist, Osamu Tezuka, and his most popular work is the manga Mighty Atom that later on called Astro Boy.
According to tezuka, mangas that came before him were in 2 dimensional prespective and in the style of stage play. He wanted some psychological effect and it was impossible this way. So he tried applying cinematic techniques. He manipulated close-ups and angles. He tried using many panels and pages to convey feelings and actions that used to be conveyed in one panel.
Sazae-san was a comic strip published from 1946-74 that has an anime based on it.
He also thought that manga was not just getting a laugh. he used themes of sorrow, tears, anger, hatred. He made stories that not necessarily had a happnding.
Tezuka made his comic book debut in 1947 with the story New Treasure Island. It sold400,000 copies.
Artists who followed the footsteps of Tezuka became the giants of the postwar manga industry. Thanks to Tezuka, the manga market broaded. Children who read Tezukas manga continued reading even during college.
Still, Some say that when Tezuka was a child, other artists used cinematic techniques. So who knows who really shaped todays manga.
Pre-manga was aimed at children, so its a given that they will forget about it after middle school. But todays manga aims at all ages so to them it's just another form of intertainmet.
The first children's magazine contained 40% of manga, but it didnt sell much. Not long after, the publishers figured that increasing manga space will increase sales, so they increased it to more than half the space of a magazine.
The best selling magazine of all times was shounen jump, it kept rising till 1994 they reached 6,200,000 sold copies / month while other magazines struggled.
Most of English speaking comic books are seen as boys' stuff. Shoujo mangais so famous because it aims at girls only.
Even if a woman artist works on an English-speaking comic for girls, it's nowhere near equivalent to shoujo manga.
Female readers of English-speaking comics are minority within minority, whereas in Japan, girlo dont read manga are the minority.
Just like shounen manga, shoujo manga's seed was also planted by Tezuka. It started the same was with shounen manga, as a newspaper humor comic strip.
But Tezuka started the evolusion with his shoujo manga Night of the Ribbon. Shoujo manga is mainly about romance but it's not limited to it. It could be in any jenre as long as it has some kind of romance in it even if it's an unimportant factor.
In 1963, it shifted from a monthly to weekly format since the demand on more manga was high. They needed more artists and found that women artists are more likely to meet the demands of the readers. Women artists debuted and the one that attracted the most attention was Machika Satonaka with her Weekly Friends manga. She was only 16 years old and that started the seconds revolution in shoujo manga.
Between 1967-69, a group of women artists called the Fabulous Forty-Niners began to experiment with new themes, styles, and stories, rejecting limitations of traditional shoujo manga. They even aimed for older readers.
It became hard for shoujo manga to stay in a weekly format since the pressure on the women artists was high and they couldnt achieve what they sought. So they changed to biweekly format.
It became complex for the market when adult demanded for manga that they can call their own.
Since there were all kinds of readers, in 1990, they decided to create more sub-genres. Now even housewives read manga.
Some animes from the old days are ones like Barefoot Gen and Sazae-san.
Otogi Manga Calendar was the first anime series ever in Japan. From the picture, you could tell the style is American.
In 1918, they used to make fairytalles into some kinda anime like Urashima Tarou.
One popular anime production company is Studio Ghibli which produced award winning works such as My Neighbor Totoro and Spirited Away.