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UCSD Presentation 06 March 2017

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Amrutasri Nori-Sarma

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Transcript of UCSD Presentation 06 March 2017

“Temperature, Air Pollution, and Human Health Burden in Urban India: Fieldwork, Methods, and Preliminary Results”
PhD Student
Adviser: Prof Michelle Bell, Yale University F&ES
Global Health Seminar, UC San Diego, 6 March 2017
Amruta Nori-Sarma
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Air Pollution, Temperature and Health in the US (760 Studies)
Environment and Health in the US
Temperature and Mortality, France 2003
Why India?
Extreme environmental conditions

Sensitive Populations
Urban / rural

Massive population, with correspondingly large burden of disease
Relevance of estimating burden of disease using studies in N. America, Europe

Therefore, new research is needed
Measurements from Indian Meteorological Department
Meteorological data from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Air Pollution:
Measurements from Central Pollution Control Board
Sampling Campaigns - Pilot in Dec 2015, seasonal campaigns in 2016/2017
Focus on NO2 (traffic pollution); PM2.5 and PM10
Source: Nori-Sarma A, Gurung A et al."Opportunities and Challenges in Public Health Data Collection in Southern Asia: Examples from Western India and Kathmandu Valley, Nepal." In preparation.
Sampling campaign, June / July 2014
Pilot Sampling
Ambient Pollution
Passive Sampling
Source: Azhar GS, Mavalankar D, Nori-Sarma A, Rajiva A, Dutta P, et al. (2014) Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave. PLoS ONE 9(3): e91831. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091831
Temperatures and daily all-cause mortality, 2010 study period vs. 2009–2011 reference period
This project was supported by a Fulbright Program grant sponsored by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States Department of State and administered by the Institute of International Education, and by the US Environmental Protection Agency through a Science to Achieve Results (STAR) fellowship.

Acknowledgements: Yale Institute for Biospheric Studies, Enders Dissertation Research Grant, MacMillan Center, Tropical Resources Institute, IIPH-Gandhinagar, Univ of Mysore, JSS University Mysore Bhoroka Charitable Trust NGO, Healis-Sekhsaria Institute of Public Health
Tarik Benhmarnia, UC San Diego
14 days of NO2 sampling, 15 locations
Low, medium and high pollution
Palmes tubes and Ogawa badges
Spatial heterogeneity of air pollution levels
Seasonal Sampling
14 days of NO2 sampling, 150 locations
Palmes tubes; 15 Ogawa badges
Sites selected using combination of purposeful and random site selection

Results from Spatial Interpolation using Kriging of air pollution levels at 15 pilot sampling locations in Mysore
The spatial interpolation of air pollution heterogeneity, from applying a Kriging procedure to the data in ArcGIS and R, shows the estimates of air pollution levels in the Mysore. Several items of interest to note from the data are:
Air pollution levels in urban areas of India are very high, and exhibit large spatial heterogeneity. This will be important when evaluating exposure to air pollution and human health impacts in neighborhoods that are in close proximity to each other.
As opposed to other previously studied locations in Asia, traffic pollution (estimated by distance to nearest major roadway, with roadways indicated on the maps above) may not be the greatest determining factor of air pollution levels in urban India. Areas that are close to pollution point sources in both cities exhibit elevated levels of NO2.
Levels of air pollution in the city center are above the WHO recommended annual average for NO2 exposure.
Take-aways from Air Pollution Research
Temperature and Mortality in 11 US cities, 1973-1994
Vandentorren et al, AJPH 2004
What's Next?
Dissertation Aim 3:
Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) cohort in Mysore - link air pollution exposure
Ongoing Temperature / Mortality analysis:
Impact of alternative HW definitions on Health Outcomes
NO2 Concentrations in Mysore (PPM)
model R-squared = 0.402
Full transcript