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# Jacob Kounin Model

This Prezi was constructed for a group assessment on one of the Theories of classroom management. All content used is provided in a reference list at the end of the Prezi.
by

## Rhiannon Walding

on 14 April 2011

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#### Transcript of Jacob Kounin Model

The Jacob Kounin Model 1 2 3 4 With-It-Ness Overlapping Smoothness and Momentum Group Alerting The Ripple Effect Kounin's Variables Group Alerting disruptive students + unaware teacher = disruptive class The Theory and Scenarios The "Ripple Effect" as you can see works in two ways, and the teacher is the key to whether a positive or negative "Ripple Effect" occurs within the classroom. If the teacher is unable to stop a student from misbehaving then other students will see this and continue the disruption. An example of the "Ripple Effect" in practice:
Rebecca is a well-mannered, attentive fifth grade student. For the first time since starting school, she and her two best friends are in the same class. Unlike Rebecca, her friends are not attentive and are interested more in each other than in class activities. The teacher often has to reprimand them for passing notes, talking to each other, and giggling excessively during class. One day, Rebecca is tapped on the shoulder and is handed a note from her friend across the room. She accepts the note and sends one back. With this, her friends quickly include her in their antics. 1 With-It-Ness Example Mrs Harris is ‘with-it’, she is engaging all students in an activity of tracing the Mormon route. The seated students are trying to chart the part of their maps while Fred is doing the work in front of the class. Mrs Harris is helping Fred while at the same time scanning the room and listening to what the other students are doing. She shows the class that she knows what is going on by immediately picking up on a new noise and telling Samantha to stop talking. Kounin identified 'with-it-ness' as a teacher's ability to be constantly aware of what is going on in their classroom. A 'with-it' teacher is aware of things such as:
whether students have grasped the work
which students are listening and those that are not
which students are actually doing the worked asked of them How to use it in the classroom Keep constantly alert to sights and sounds around the classroom
Arrange students to be within sight at all times
Scan the classroom whenever attending to an individual or small group of students
At the first detection of misbehaviour, use a brief acknowledgment to let the class know that you are aware of the misbehaviour In the classroom Disruptive behaviour is going to happen in the classroom at one time or another. It is important to stop these problems before they produce a "Ripple Effect". This means being aware of the situation when it begins and to stop the student whom started the disruptive behaviour. This means teachers must be quick and accurate. 2 Overlapping Example: Looking back to Mrs Harris, you could see that not only was she 'with-it' but was also utilising her overlapping skills by being able to help a student and monitor her classroom for any disruptive behaviour. Overlapping works complementary with 'with-it-ness'. It is the ability to respond to two or more events at once. It is an important strategy as it helps the class run smoothly and prevents students from being off task and susceptible to misbehaving. Strategies for the classroom Attending to two events at the same time whenever necessary so as not to leave students waiting
When instructing one group, acknolwedge difficulties that students outside the group may be having, but keep group instruction moving
When attempting to deal with more than one issue at a time, a teacher can deal with one or more tasks simply through non-verbal communication such as hand gestures and eye contact. 3 Smoothness and Momentum Smoothness Is where the teacher keeps the learning activities going without:
being distracted
interrupting students while they are working
go off on unrelated tangents
changing the direction of the lesson after concerning students It requires teachers to make their lesson flow in a logical manner whilst not breaking the continuity of the classroom. Teachers that disrupt their own lessons are more likely to hae occurances of student misbeahviour than those who don't Ways to keep it 'smooth' Preplan the lesson so that extraneous matters are taken care of, i.e. Getting the collection of homework out of the way before concentrating on the lesson
Once students are absorbed in their work, do not distract them. Leave them alone to work and assist them individually. Momentum Momentum is highly related to the delivery of a lesson. A teacher with momentum capitalises on transition periods as short flowing time into the next activity
A teacher without momentum loses instructional time and causes student restlessness. Ways to keep
the momentum Keep the lesson moving briskly
Do not overdwell on a part of the lesson that is already understood by students
Have students move from one activity to the next without having to wait for each other on each subpart of the transition. 4 refers to the process by which teachers keeps students attentive to presentations and hold them accountable for learning. Teachers who use group alerting are ensuring students keep 'on their toes' or in suspense. This encourages students to remain actively engaged in the lesson. Randomly calling on students is an effective way of using group alerting A Critique of the Kounin Model Pros Cons The Jacob Kounin model explores the skills teachers use to minimise and prevent management problems. His work helps to differentiate more and less effective classroom managers on the basis of their active attempts to avoid problems. Kounin's research provides rich insight into the preventive facets of misbehaviour but little information about techniques of corrective discipline.
This model takes an extreme amount of effort by the teacher. Constantly surveying the classroom and being on top of multiple situations can become tiring.
The model is very teacher centred, with the value on student compliance.
Some of Kounin's identified variables may not be so effective in different cultural contexts. For example, Indigenous students need time for reflection therefore group alerting may cause students to feel uncomfortable and not allow their learning style to be optimised. The strategies identified by Kounin can be used in a wide variety of classrooms.
Kounin's variables are simple in nature.
Encourages mutual respect between student and teacher. For example a student is more likely to respect a teacher who is 'on top of things' rather than one who is oblivious or chooses to ignore the disruptive behaviour present in the classroom.
Students are less likely to 'test the teacher's limits' as the boundaries have been clearly illustrated by the teacher's with-it-ness and subsequent actions.
Bellon, J. J, Bellon, E. C., & Blank, M. (1992). 'Teaching from a research knowledge base'. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Brady, L., & Scully, A. (2005). 'Engagement inclusive classroom management'. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education Australia.

Burden, P. R. (1995). 'Classroom management and discipline'. White Plains: Longman Publishers USA.

Cangelosi, J. S. (1993). 'Classroom management strategies: Gaining and maintaining students' cooperation' (2nd ed.). White Plains: Longman Publishing Group.

Edwards, C. H. (1997). 'Classroom discipline & management' (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Kounin, J. S. (1970). 'Discipline and group management in classrooms'. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Kounin, J. S., & Gump, P. V. (1958) The ripple effect in discipline. 'The Elementary School Journal', 59(3), 158-162.

Levin, J., & Nolan, J. F. (2000). 'Principles of classroom management: A professional decision-making model' (3rd ed.). Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.

Wattenberg, W. W. (1977) The ecology of classroom beahvior. 'Theory into Practice', 16(4), 256-261.

Wolfgang, C. H. (2005). 'Solving discipline and classroom management problems' (6th ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, INC. References + = disruptive students observant teacher engaged class If a teacher quickly identifies and deals with a student's misbehaviour this will illustrate to other students of the class the consequences of such disruptive behaviour. Ben is a well behaved student whom rarely misbehaves in class. However he has recently gotten himself a girlfriend and is texting her whilst in music class. However Ben is unaware that his teacher, Mr Browett, has seen what he is doing and is quickly told to put the phone away because it is against the school's policy. This desist technique reminds the other students of the boundaries regarding mobile phones within the classroom.
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