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timeline

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by

Karndev Mann

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of timeline

The Start of Earth
4.6 Billion 2012 Climate Timeline Archean era
3.8 billion–2.5
billion years ago Cryogenian period
850 million–635
million years ago Ediacaran period
635 million–545
million years ago Cambrian period
545 million–495
million years ago Ordovician period
495 million–443
million years ago Silurian period
443 million–417
million years ago Devonian period
417 million–354
million years ago Carboniferous period
354 million–290
million years ago Permian period
290 million–248
million years ago Triassic period
248 million–205
million years ago Jurassic period
205 million–142
million years ago Cretaceous period
142 million–65
million years ago Oligocene epoch
33.7 million–23.8
million years ago Miocene epoch
23.8 million–5.3
million years ago Pliocene epoch
5.3 million–2.6
million years ago Pleistocene epoch
2.6 million–11.7
thousand years ago Holocene epoch
11.7 thousand years
ago–present day Eocene epoch
54.8 million–33.7
million years ago Palaeocene epoch
65 million–54.8
million years ago During this era there was a large amount of carbon dioxide in the air. There were just small islands in a shallow ocean.

Since there was a large amount of carbon dioxide in the air, due to this the air could be toxic to many animals today’s world. During this era there was a large amount of carbon
dioxide in the air. There were just small islands in a
shallow ocean.

Since there was a large amount of carbon dioxide in
the air, due to this the air could be toxic to many
animals today’s world.

31707 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between
a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

50000 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis
rotation) happened

Carbon dioxide comprised about 15% of the
atmosphere and the percentage of nitrogen was 75% This era is nicknamed “Snowball Earth” because glaciation
was so harsh that it may even “have reached the equator”.
Due to this harsh condition there were only tiny organisms
during this period.

5243 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of
22.1° and 24.5°) happened

11730 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation)
happened

most of the carbon dioxide had been depleted from the
atmosphere, leaving nitrogen as the main atmospheric
gas with a small percentage of oxygen, Nitrogen gas. There was no life on land during this period this is because the sea was still very much the centre of living activity, and the temperature was also moderate during this period.

1219 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

1923 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened During the beginning of the Ordovician period the sea
was warm but towards the end of its era there was a
500,000 year long ice age and this caused a massive
extinction of many living things

1268 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a
tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

2000 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened Sea level rose during this period because of the ice
age from the previous period, “making the Silurian
a period of extensive seas”.

During this period “Bony fish” made their first
display. Plants became due to climateand the plants
were also more firm and fixed on land. These plants
became habitats for many living things.
634 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a
tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened
1000 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis
rotation) happened Since the global climate was warm during this period sea surface temperatures were about 30 degrees Celsius and, due to this sea levels were very high.
Due to climate and moderate temperature, the Devonian is “known as the Age of Fishes”.

1536 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

2423 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened This period is known for having the “highest atmospheric oxygen levels the Earth has ever experienced” and due to this there were now many “first reptiles”. Plants became coal because they grew and died at such a high and fast rate.

The Carboniferous period was initially called “the Coal Measures” because of the climate which was the “highest atmospheric oxygen levels the Earth has ever experienced”

1560 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

2461 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened During this period the globe warmed up and the ice went away, many areas of Pangaea became very dry.

There was an ice age at the beginning of this period and it ended with the most destructive extinction the Earth has ever experienced. In fact, there was at least two mass extinctions that occurred during this time.

1024 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened
1615 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened Due to the climate change in this period the Polar Regions were warm that forests grew there. During this time, the giant supercontinent of Pangaea began to break apart.
The environmental conditions and climate were good that the very first mammals and dinosaurs developed. There was also an extinction event that killed many species during this period.

1048 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened 1653 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened Due to the state of climate in this period, there was continental break-up during this time. This caused sea to rise and would eventually widen to become the Atlantic Ocean.
2) Due to the state of climate the Jurassic period eventually became home to organisms that Earth had yet seen. “Amongst them were the first birds and some of the dinosaurs, there air was rich in oxygen and the climate was good.”

1536 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

2423 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened During this period the climate killed the dinosaurs. In addition, it was so warm that there were with ice caps at the poles.
Due to the climate during this period many land was underwater, since sea levels reached their highest ever during this time. The Atlantic Ocean grew much wider as a result of this.

1878 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened
2961 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened The island continent of India moved north and collided with Asia during this period. In addition the rise in temperature across the planet made the climate much wetter and caused sea level to rise.
During the Palaeocene epoch there were many extinction of the dinosaurs and other large reptiles due to the climate and this caused many mammals and birds to develop

248 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

392 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened Due to the good climate in the Eocene epoch, forests grew and trees grew even in Polar Regions. “Eventually, the Eocene became cooler and drier. As India continued to drift northwards, pushing against the Eurasian continent, the mass of rocks thrust up between them formed the Himalayas. At this time Africa was an island, not yet joined to the Middle East and Europe, but its own journey north was to trigger the formation of the Alps”
During the Eocene epoch many species of grass developed.

514 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

811 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened During the Oligocene epoch earth was cooling this
would cause a shift in the Earth's climate.

Since the climate was great during the Oligocene epoch,
grasslands began to expand and forests become smaller.
Many animals began to fit in with the new open landscape
and many fast running prey and predator species arose as
a result.

241 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of
22.1° and 24.5°) happened

380 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened During the Miocene epoch grasslands continued to grow
due to the good climate. In the Miocene seas, “kelp
forests made their first appearance”.

Many new life and animals such as apes appeared during
the Miocene epoch because of the climate.

451 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt
of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

711 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened During the Pliocene epoch earth cooled and ice at the North Pole became permanent and grassland developed. “At the start of the Pliocene, over 5 million years ago, the north polar ice cap came and went with the seasons and with fluctuations in climate. as North and South America had been drifting ever closer and the gap between them was sealed in this epoch.”
“The human lineage split away from the chimpanzees' early on in the epoch”.

65 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

103 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened During the Pleistocene epoch there were many ice ages, and because there were various ice ages many deserts expanded.

Due to the climate change during the Pleistocene epoch, our species developed during this epoch.

631 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

99.55 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened “Although we think of the Holocene as a warm time for the planet, we are still in an ice age. This is indicated by the presence of ice caps at the poles - the planet as a whole is just in an interglacial phase. glaciers began to retreat. This retreat marked the end of the glacial phase of the most recent ice age. Its character was set by the spread of forests as the ice retreated and then by their shrinkage as mankind's demand for timber and agricultural land grew.”
“Since many fossils provide data on climates and environments of the past, paleontologists predict that Holocene epoch may contribute to future environmental change will affect the Earth's life.”

0.2854 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened (at 23.5)

0.45 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened

Nitrogen (N2) 780,840 ppm (78.084%)
Oxygen (O2) 209,460 ppm (20.946%)
Argon (Ar) 9,340 ppm (0.9340%)
Carbon dioxide(CO2) 394.45 ppm (0.039445%)
Neon (Ne) 18.18 ppm (0.001818%) The temperature during this era and all living things were “soft-bodied” – so basically this means that there were no hard parts such as bones, shells, teeth. As soft bodies don't fossilise very well, remains from this period are rare.

2195 times that obliquity (Axial tilt shift between a tilt of 22.1° and 24.5°) happened

3461 times that Axial precession (Earth's axis rotation) happened

most of the carbon dioxide had been depleted from the atmosphere, leaving nitrogen as the main atmospheric gas with a small percentage of oxygen, Nitrogen gas. Milankovitch theory describes the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements upon its climate mathematically theorized that variations in eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earth's orbit determined climatic patterns on Earth through orbital forcing. The Earth's axis completes one full cycle of precession approximately every 26,000 years. At the same time the elliptical orbit rotates more slowly. The combined effect of the two precessions leads to a 21,000-year period between the astronomical seasons and the orbit. In addition, the angle between Earth's rotational axis and the normal to the plane of its orbit (obliquity) oscillates between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees on a 41,000-year cycle. It is currently 23.44 degrees and decreasing Atmospheric composition today Atmospheric composition Past 1800's Human activities result in emissions of three primary green¬house gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O). These gases collect in the atmosphere, which causing concentrations of the gases over time. Significant increases in all of these gases have occurred in the industrial era (1800’s) and continues to this day. All of these increases are thank to human activities from the 1800’s to day.

Carbon dioxide has increased from fossil fuel use in transpor¬tation, building heating and cooling and the manufacture of cement and other goods. Deforestation releases CO2 and re¬duces its uptake by plants. Carbon dioxide is also released in natural processes such as the decay of plant matter.

Methane has increased as a result of human activities related to agriculture, natural gas distribution and landfills. Methane is also released from natural processes that occur, for example, in wetlands. Methane concentrations are not currently increas¬ing in the atmosphere because growth rates decreased over the last two decades.

Nitrous oxide is also emitted by human activities such as fertil¬izer use and fossil fuel burning. Natural processes in soils and the oceans also release N2O. Known Ice Ages
Name Period (Ma) Period
Quaternary 2.58 – present Neogene
Karoo 360 – 260 Carboniferous
and Permian
Andean-Saharan 450 – 420 Ordovician
and Silurian
Cryogenian 800 – 635 Cryogenian
(or Sturtian-
Varangian)
Huronian 2400 – 2100 Siderian
and Rhyacian The Future The End
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