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Metallurgy, Properties and Uses of Non ferrous Metals and Al
Transcript of Metallurgy, Properties and Uses of Non ferrous Metals and Al
is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Non Ferrous Metals
is any metal, including
that does not contain iron in appreciable amounts.
Metal and alloys of the nonferrous group have an important place in engineering construction. They have a wide range of properties which often adapt them to uses for which iron alloys would not be suited
a metal made by combining two or more metallic elements, especially to give greater strength or resistance to corrosion.
The most commonly used non-ferrous metals are aluminium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, titanium, cobalt, chromium and precious metals.
Copper is an excellent electrical conductor. Most of its uses are based on this property or the fact that it is also a good thermal conductor. However, many of its applications also rely on one or more of its other properties. For example, it wouldn't make very good water and gas pipes if it were highly reactive. On this page, we look at these other properties:
a good electrical conductor
a good thermal conductor
easy to alloy
Zinc compounds such as zinc oxide are found in many common commercial products, including batteries, paint, plastics, rubber products, pharmaceuticals, floor coverings, inks, cosmetics, soap, and textiles. Zinc is also a natural insect repellent and sun screen, helping to protect our skin.
Tin is a silvery-white, soft, malleable metal that can be highly polished.
Tin has a highly crystalline structure and when a tin bar is bent, a 'tin cry' is heard, due to the breaking of these crystals.
It resists oxygen and water but dissolves in acids and bases. Exposed surfaces form an oxide film. When heated in air, tin forms tin(IV) oxide (stannic oxide) which is feebly acidic.
Tin is used as a coating on the surface of other metals to prevent corrosion. 'Tin' cans, for example, are made of tin-coated steel.
Alloys of tin are commercially important in, for example, soft solder, pewter, bronze and phosphor bronze.
Tin chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl2) is used as a mordant in dyeing textiles and for increasing the weight of silk. Stannous fluoride (SnF2) is used in some toothpastes.
It's the commonest metal in Earth's crust, the third most plentiful chemical element on our planet
Aluminum is soft, lightweight, fire-proof and heat-resistant, easy to work into new shapes, and able to conduct electricity. It reflects light and heat very effectively and it doesn't rust. It reacts easily with other chemical elements, especially oxygen, and readily forms an outer layer of aluminum oxide if you leave it in the air. We call these things aluminum's physical and chemical properties.
Suppose you want to carry electricity over long distances from power plants to homes and factories. You could use copper, which is generally the best conductor (carrier) of electricity, but it's heavy and expensive. Aluminum might be an option, but it doesn't carry electricity so readily. One solution is to make power cables from aluminum alloyed with boron, which conducts electricity almost as well as copper but is a great deal lighter and less droopy on hot days. Typically, aluminum alloys contain 90–99 percent aluminum.
Characteristics of Lead:
Very soft: Without support, it can sag and become distorted
- Has a low melting point
- Generally corrosion-resistant - has little to no reaction with
- Lead pipes: Sheets of lead were formed into tubes by bending
and lead burning (welding).
- Flashing, gutters and downspouts, and conductor heads
Pure titanium is a light, silvery-white, hard, lustrous metal. It has excellent strength and corrosion resistance and also has a high strength to weight ratio. At high temperatures the metal will burn in air and, unusually, titanium will also burn in pure nitrogen. Titanium is ductile and it is malleable when heated. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in concentrated acids.
Titanium metal is used as an alloying agent with metals including aluminum, iron, molybdenum and manganese. Alloys of titanium are mainly used in aerospace, aircraft and engines where strong, lightweight, temperature-resistant materials are needed.
Copper- Zinc Alloys
Copper - Tin Alloys
Copper- Nickel Alloys
Die Casting Alloys
Solders and Brazing Alloys
Electrical and Thermal Conductivity
Pure copper is a very good conductor of both electricity and heat.
Pure copper has a reddish gold color which quickly oxides to a dull green. Since copper often contains natural impurities or is alloyed with more than one element, it is difficult to state the specific effect each alloying element has on the resulting alloy's color. Electrolytic tough pitch copper contains silver and often trace amount of iron and sulfur and has a soft pink color. Gilding copper is a reddish brown color and contains zinc, iron, and lead. Brass is often used as an ornamental metal, since it has an appearance very similar to that of gold and is much less expensive. Brasses contain varying amounts of zinc, iron, and lead and can vary from reddish to greenish to brownish gold. Nickel silver, which contains nickel, zinc, iron, lead, and manganese, can have a grayish-white to silver appearance.
How Alloying Elements Affect the Properties of Copper Alloys
Small amounts of alloying elements are often added to metals to improve certain characteristics of the metal. Alloying can increase or reduce the strength, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, or change the color of a metal. The addition of a substance to improve one property may have unintended effects on other properties. This page describes the effects of various alloying elements on copper and copper alloys such as brass and bronze.
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