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DTP2016 - Solidarity (wk6)

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Yvan Guichaoua

on 11 April 2016

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Transcript of DTP2016 - Solidarity (wk6)

Solidarity!
Perspectives on Social Capital and 'Civil Society'

How did the topic (re-)surface in the field of development?
1980s
. SAPs' shock therapy. Unexpected outcomes and the need for safety nets
Late 1980s
. WB on the learning curve
oh wait, the opposite of state regulation is not the free market, people are connected in multiple, non economic ways!
deviations from strict selfishness exist!
A new research agenda
. Social capital, civil society --> trust in
participatory processes
and deliberation (PRSPs, see http://goo.gl/eF5Oop)
Definitions
Social capital
according to WB: http://is.gd/0MbCHF

Civil society
according to Bratton (1994): ‘Sphere of social interaction between the household and the state which is manifest in norms of community cooperation, structures of voluntary association, and networks of public communication’ (p. 2)

SC slightly more neutral than CS
Not the tyranny of the domestic cell
Not the greed of the market
Not the cynicism of politics
--> Can we really separate the good and bad sides sides of social connectedness?


The wheel reinvented?
Adam Smith
K. Polanyi
E. Durkheim
P. Bourdieu
An early sociological puzzle
The Gift
The triple obligation to
give
receive
return. But i) not exactly the same amount and ii) later
Measuring deviations from selfishness
The Ultimatum Game
(with your participation)
Measuring deviations from selfishness.
The Ultimatum Game
(Henrich et al.)
The Ultimatum Game
. Discussion
What is being measured exactly?
What explains variation?
homo oeconomicus
. A social construct: the product of market-based economy rather than universal behaviour?
The 'community' has no intrinsic quality
Another big finding. Less generosity towards
strangers
(another social construct)
SC and growth - Civicness in Italian industrial districts

The benefits of vibrant SC
SC and democracy - Kgotla meetings in Botswana
SC, risk-sharing and investment


SC and job search - Granovetter's strength of weak ties

SC and Conflicts -
Fearon & Laitin, Varshney

How selfish soever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature, which interest him in the fortune of others, and render their happiness necessary to him, though he derives nothing from it, except the pleasure of seeing it. (A. Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, 1759)
Small, not always beautiful
How resilient is reciprocity? Explaining urban "anonymity" v rural "tight-knit communities"
Microlevel 'extractive' institutions
--> Bonding SC v Bridging SC
Theory and measurement
Funerals in Abidjan
Rotating saving and credit associations
Even when membership is voluntary, CSOs are local
sources of power
(sometimes competing with the state, sometimes forming an alliance with it, sometimes operating in parallel with it) and
inequalities
, framed by collectively endorsed or disputed behavioural norms

Implication
(among others). Debunking the myth of
African solidarity
--> exclusion can be brutal if you cannot meet your social obligations
CSOs as political creatures
Full transcript