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(AH1) Objective 4 - New England Colonization

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by

Jerrid Harris

on 28 November 2016

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Transcript of (AH1) Objective 4 - New England Colonization

New England Colonization

What characteristics make New England unique to English colonization?
Plymouth (1620)
-
founded by "
separatists
" of the Church of England
- created and signed the "
Mayflower Compact
" (the will of the majority)
- The first winter of 1620-1621 killed many (only 44/102 survived)...none fled
- First Governor
William Bradford
served 30 consecutive elections ... very popular among the settlers
Rhode Island (1636)
- Founded by
exiles
from Massachusetts,
Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson
- R.I. was founded on the idea of Freedom of Religion
- freedom of religious practice for Jews, Catholics, Protestants, Quakers, the irreligious, etc...
- Exercised
universal suffrage
... in which everyone participated in political decisions ... this was later revoked
- Strongly individualistic and independent
- Called "
Rogue's Island
" and "
a sewer where the Lord's debris has collected and rotted
" by John Winthrop.
Connecticut (1635)
- Hartford, CT was founded by
Thomas Hooker
, a Puritan from Boston ... it's similar to Mass.
- Drafted the
Fundamental Orders
, which served as a Constitution that granted political power to "substantial citizens."
- A close church-government alliance led to the creation of strict "
blue laws
"
Native American Relations
- 3/4 of the Native Americans in New England were killed by disease by 1620
- The first
Thanksgiving
was celebrated in 1621 between Puritans at Plymouth and the
Wampanoag
tribe
- Hostilities caused by English expansion
-
Pequot War
(1634-1638) - Indians slaughtered on Connecticut's Mystic River ...
you should've already read about this from the link on the google classroom ... make note that it involved rival Indian tribes in which the English settlers sided with against the Pequot.

-
King Phillips War
- frontier settlers were slaughtered by
Metacom
...52 towns attacked, 12 destroyed, hundreds killed on both sides...Metacom (King Phillip) was captured and killed
Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
Rhode Island, New Hampshire

Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630)
-
founded by "
puritans
" during the
Great Migration
of the 1630's...settled by "
squatters,"
had no legal claim to the land
- First Governor
John Winthrop
was a strong leader ("
A Model of Christian Charity
" - see document
- Church members (male visibly active in the church -
"visible saints"
) had voting rights at "
Town Meetings
" in which they voted by majority rule (
true democracy
)
- Settlements within Massachusetts became part of the "
Bible Commonwealth
" meaning that they all shared a strong committment to biblical principles ... this is seen best in their
blue laws
New Hampshire (1641)
- founded in 1641, as a part of MA...it gained independence in 1679 when it became a royal colony
-
like all the other New England colonies...main economic activties relied on fur, fishing, and lumber industries ... these raw materials were shipped to England where they were turned into finished goods ... #mercantilism
The Seeds of Independence and a Revolution
- The
New England Confederation
(1643)
- created primarily for defense purposes (against Indians and the French) among the New England colonies
- also assisted in the return of runaway servants and criminals
-
each member received 2 votes
(
sent 2 delegates to meetings
) in N.E. Confederation decisions
- All members were Puritans (#BibleCommonwealth)
- grew under the period of "
salutary neglect
" in which Britain neglected direct rule of the colonies, so long as raw materials continued to be shipped to English manufacturers and English citizens in America continued to pay their taxes

The Separatists (Pilgrims) landing at Plymouth Rock in 1620
The Plymouth settlers sigining the Mayflower Compact
William Bradford
Blue Laws - religious laws that carried stiff penalties for breaking.
John Winthrop
New England Town Meetings
The Banishment of Anne Hutchinson
Roger Williams founds Rhode Island
had relative peace with the Indians
Pequot War
The First Thanksgiving ... notice the difference in the relationship between the Plymouth settlers and the Indians, and that of the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan
The Mayflower Compact -

"In the name of GOD, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of GOD, of England, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, e&. Having undertaken
for the Glory of GOD
, and
Advancement of the Christian Faith
, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in
the northern parts of Virginia
; do by these presents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence of GOD and one of another,
covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation
, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to
enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony
; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620."
John Winthrop's City upon a Hill, 1630

Now the onely way to avoyde this shipwracke and to provide for our posterity is to followe the Counsell of Micah, to doe Justly, to love mercy, to walke humbly with our God, for this end, wee must be knitt together in this worke as one man, wee must entertaine each other in brotherly Affeccion,
wee must be willing to abridge our selves of our superfluities, for the supply of others necessities, wee must uphold a familiar Commerce together in all meekenes, gentlenes, patience and liberallity, wee must delight in eache other, make others Condicions our owne rejoyce together, mourne together, labour, and suffer together, allwayes haveing before our eyes our Commission and Community in the worke, our Community as members of the same body,
soe shall wee keepe the unitie of the spirit in the bond of peace, the Lord will be our God and delight to dwell among us, ... when hee shall make us a prayse and glory, that men shall say of succeeding plantacions: the lord make it like that of New England:
for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eies of all people are uppon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his present help from us, wee shall be made a story and a byword through the world, wee shall open the mouthes of enemies to speake evill of the wayes of god
and all professours for Gods sake; ... wee are Commaunded this day to love the Lord our God, and to love one another to walke in his wayes and to keepe his Commaundements and his Ordinance, and his lawes, and the Articles of our Covenant with him that wee may live and be multiplyed, and that the Lord our God may blesse us in the land whether wee goe to possesse it: But if our heartes shall turne away soe that wee will not obey, but shall be seduced and worshipp other Gods our pleasures, and proffitts, and serve them, it is propounded unto us this day, wee shall surely perishe out of the good Land whether wee passe over this vast Sea to possesse it;
Primary Source Survey
Primary Source Survey
Decision were made by the majority rule of active church members (called visible saints) ... this is an example of "true democracy, whereas Virginia practiced representative democracy ... note the difference!
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