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Transcript of Botulinum Neurotoxin
Botulinum neurotoxin is any of several neurotoxins that are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum that causes muscle paralysis. Clostridium botulinum produces exotoxins (A, B, C-1, C-2, D, E, F, G) that are serologically and antigenically distinct. Botulinum toxin is a protein consisting of seven related A-B toxins. Each botulinum toxin molecule is comprised of a heavy chain and of a light chain, each of which contributes to the toxicity, connected by a disulfide bond. Botulinum toxin Type A Widely used for cosmetic purposes. Botulinum toxin binds to glycoprotein receptors on the nerve cell. Heavy chain of core molecule of Botulinum toxin Receptor on nerve terminal Membrane of nerve terminal Light chain of core molecule of Botulinum toxin Snare protein complex Without Botulinum Toxin... With Botulinum Toxin! Light chain released into cytoplasm cleaves Snap 25 - an essential part of the Snare complex.
- In motor neurons, acetylcholine cannot be released and thus, there is no muscle contraction
- In sensory neurons, neuropeptide neurotransmitters cannot be released and thus, sensitization of pain nerves is inhibited. Pre-synaptic neuromuscular nerve endings contain membranous vesicles prepared to release stored neurotransmitter: acetylcholine. Neuronal stimulation initiates a cascade of events that leads to the fusion of the neurotransmitter-containing vesicle with the membrane.
This process is facilitated by a group of proteins comprising the snare complex. The membrane fusion results in the release of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft by a process of exocytosis. The acetylcholine diffuses and eventually binds to receptors on the muscle leading to muscle contraction Botulinum neurotoxin is currently being researched and tested for uses outside of cosmetics.
For example, with multiple injections around the head and neck, the use of neurotoxin can relieve migraines. This treatment was discovered after cosmetic use of Botox was providing relief for migraine sufferers. Neurotoxin can greatly reduce the duration and intensity of migraine symptoms with as few as 3 injection sessions per year. Prior to this treatment, people who suffered from migraines had to resort to expensive analgesic drugs that could cause stomach bleeding or liver damage.
Neurotoxins are also producing impressive results for hyperhidrosis. When injected in the underarm area, sweating decreased by 90% within forty-eight hours, with the full effect seen within a week. Cain, Richard L. "Botulinum Neurotoxin." PVR Resources: n. pag. SIRS Decades. Web. 2 Nov. 2012.
Functional. "Botulinum Analysis." Glycomics: 2-4. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 3 Nov. 2012.
Larren, Jared C. "Botox." Total Beauty: 5-5. SIRS Researcher. Web. 3 Nov. 2012.
Rincon, Jose. "Toxipidia." Toxicology 11 Dec. 2004: n. pag. Biomedical Reference Collection: Basic
Edition. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. <http://toxipedia.org/display/toxipdia/Botulinum+Toxin>. Faulty Mechanism In order for paralysis to occur the toxin must enter the axons. After the toxins have entered the axon terminal they can enter the neuron through endocytosis. Once the toxin has entered the neuron it will diffuse through the cytoplasm and spcificlly bind to SNAP-25-Proteins. The process described above can be used to treat disease like dystonia. A extremely painful disease of the nervous stem that causes uncontrollable muscle spasms of the neck and other body parts. Spasmodic torticollis and Cervical torticollis can also be cured through a smilliar process. Toxin that is ingested or inhaled can bind to epithelial cells and be transported to the general circulation. Toxin that reaches peripheral nerve endings binds to the cell surface then penetrates the plasma membrane by receptor-mediated endocytosis and the endosome membrane by pH-induced translocation. Botulism is a very rare disease that is caused by Botulinum Nero toxin It can enter the body through ingestion or open wounds. The Botulinum bacteria within 8 to 36 hours release enough nerotoxin to cause serious muscle spasms throughout the body. If not treated the bacteria can overide the nervous systems to the point that it will become a chronic illness.