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Six Kingdom System of Classification

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Hiba Chughtai

on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Six Kingdom System of Classification

Six Kingdom System of Classification
Cell wall made of cellulose
All plants have organs & organ systems
The leaves collect/absorb sunlight to convert to glucose (Autotrophs)
The petal/bud/flower is the reproductive organ
Primarily reproduce sexually, but also can asexually
Kingdom Plantae
No cell wall
Have skeletal support
Get nutrients/energy from consuming other organisms (Heterotrophs)
Reproduce sexually, and in some cases, asexually
Kingdom Animalia
Mostly multicellular
Cell wall made of chitin
Bodies are made of hyphae
Osmotrophic (absorb their food)
Reproduce sexually and asexually by means of spores
Kingdom Fungi
Unicellular or multicellular
Cell wall, if any, is made of cellulose
Some are autotrophs (produce their own food) and some are heterotrophs (consume other organisms for food)
Reproduces sexually or asexually
Kingdom Protista
By: Hiba Chughtai
Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
Some are autotrophs (produce their own food) and some are heterotrophs (consume other organisms for food)
Reproduce asexually
Cell wall is not made of peptioglycan
Sometimes there is no cell wall present
Some are autotrophs (produce their own food) and some are heterotrophs (consume other organisms for food)
Reproduces asexually
Kingdom Archaebacteria
"Phylum Magnoliophyta"
"Phylum Gymnospermae"
Parts include roots, stems, leaves, flowers (reproductive structures), and fruit
Flowers consist of sepals, petals, stamens, and the pistil or carpel
The pistil or carpel consists of the ovary (where seeds are produced), style, and stigma (sticky tip that collects pollen)
Pollen is made on the end of the male reproductive organ stamen (the anther)
During pollination, the pollen is taken to the female pistil and left on the stigma to travel down to the ovary
The mature seed is surrounded by the ovule
The fertilized egg becomes a seed, the ovary becomes a protective fruit
Have broad leaves that usually change color and die every Autumn
Flowering plant that protects it's seeds within two fruits
Reproduction occurs through the male anther & female stigma, style, ovary
Rose hip contains seeds and so does a structure in the rose hip
Parts include roots, stems, leaves, and seeds, but no flowers or fruit
The cone is the female reproductive organ and the pollen is the male reproductive organ
During pollination, the pollen or male pollen grains fall among the female cone scales (from the air) until they fall on to the ovules
Seeds are not enclosed in any plant material
Usually have needles that stay green throughout the year
Scotch Pine
"Pinus sylvestris"
Non-flowering tree that has "naked seeds"
Reproduction occurs through the male pollen grains falling onto the female ovules through the cone scales
Pine needles stay green all year
"Phylum Echinodermata"
Exist only in the sea
Mature adults have radial symmetry
Can regenerate missing body parts/organs
Have appendages or body construction pointing outwards from the body's center
Appendages usually occur in multiples of five
Have podia (several feet arranged in rows on the appendages)
Podia are filled with sea water in most echinoderms
The water vascular system in the body is also filled
Can walk by expanding/retracting the podia in the correct order
Can also develop suckers on the podia to catch prey or to maintain position
Red Cushion Sea Star
"Oreaster reticulatus"
Lives in the sea
Has radial symmetry in multiples of five, and podia
"Phylum Chordata"
Divided into Vertebrates, Tunicates, Lancelets
The vertebrates are the most familiar (eg,Humans)
Bilaterally symmetrical
Have a notocord (semi-fluid cells enclosed in a fibrous sheath)
In vertebrates, the notocord later becomes a backbone
Have a dorsal tubular nerve cord (in most species forms a brain at the anterior end)
Have pharyngeal pouches that, in vertebrates, develop into various structures such as the middle ear cavity, tonsils, etc.
In aquatic chordates, the pharyngeal pouches develop into pharyngeal slits
Have a endostyle (a ciliated groove on the ventral wall of the pharynx that secretes mucus and traps small food particles)
In vertebrates, the endostyle is replaced by the thyroid
"Homo sapien"
Bilaterally symmetrical vertebrates
Has a spinal cord and brain at the anterior end
Has a thyroid gland
"Phylum Mollusca"
Bilaterally symmetrical
Live in most environments
Have a soft body containing a visceral mass, a foot and a mantle
Body has a gut, mouth, and anus
Have kidneys
May possess dorsal or lateral shells of protein and calcareous spicules
Have a nervous system with a ganglia, circum- oesophagal ring, and paired nerve chords
Have an open-circulatory system
Have a gaseous exchange organ called a ctenidium gill
"Phylum Porifera"
Most have no definitive symmetry
Few tissues, yet no organs
Cells and tissues surround a water filled space
Have pores that intake and filter food/fluids
All adults are sessile
No respiratory, circulatory, or nervous system
Live in aquatic environments, mostly marine
Have a distinct larval stage which is planktonic
All are filter feeders
Often have a skeleton of spicules
"Phylum Arthropoda"
Bilaterally symmetrical
A large majority of arthropods belong to the main groups of Insects, Arachnids and Crustaceans
Their segmented bodies are arranged into regions called tagmata (e.g., head, thorax, abdomen)
Their paired appendages (e.g., legs, antennae) are jointed
Posses a chitinous exoskeleton that must be shed during growth
Their nervous system is dorsal (belly) and the
circulatory system is open and ventral (back)
Bilaterally symmetrical
Has a visceral mass, a foot and a mantle
Has a nervous system
Has an open-circulatory system
Has a ctenidium gill
"Cinachyrella kuekenthali"
Orange Ball Sponge
Sponge containing pores/spicules
No tissues or organs
Filter feeder
Lives in aquatic environments
No respiratory, circulatory, or nervous system
Brine Shrimp
Bilaterally symmetrical crustacean
Body is arranged by head, thorax, and abdomen
Has jointed appendages
Has an exoskeleton
"Phylum Nematoda"
Bilaterally symmetrical
Reproduction involves six stages
Have guts with a subterminal anus
Bodies are covered with a complex cuticle
Have a nervous system with a pharyngeal nerve ring
No blood system
Many species are endoparasites
Basically feed on everything
"Capillaria hepatica"
Parasitic nemotode that causes hepatic capillariasis
Pseudocoelomate, vermiform, and triploblastic
Has guts and a subterminal anus
Body is covered with a cuticle
Has a nervous system, but no circulatory
"Phylum Basidomycota"
Some can reproduce sexually via the formation of basidia cells
Some can also reproduce asexually through fragmentation of the mycelium
Some are edible
Others are poisonous, luminescent, hallucinogenic, etc.
Important decayers of wood, living or dead, causing rot
Some can convert to a yeast (or single-cell) phase, one of which causes cryptococcosis
Cinnabar-Red Polypore
"Pycnoporus cinnabarinus"
Saprophytic, white-rot decomposer
Usually found on dead wood
"Phylum Cyanophyta"
Have great diversity in form and shape (Eg, Some are spherical; some are rod-shaped)
Found in soil, clean water, and marine environment
No nucleus or internal membrane systems
Vacuoles are formed in these bacteria
Some are covered with a sheath
Unicellular forms are non-motile but trichome forms can glide
No flagella
Some have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen
Certain cyanobacteria can make their own food
"Scytonema varium"
Found in subaerial habitats
Composed of minute prokaryotic cells within a outer sheath
Has a special cell called a heterocyst
Can convert nitrogen into ammonia
"Phylum Crenarchaeota"
Extreme thermophiles
Microorganisms that live and grow in extremely hot environments
They grow best in temperatures that are between 50C/120F- 70C/158F
They will not grow if the temperature reaches 20C/68F
Live in geothermal habitats, or in environments that create heat themselves
"Sulfolobus archae"
Cell wall is more stable in extreme conditions
Grow in terrestrial volcanic hot springs
Optimum growth occurring at pH 2-3
Found in lakes, ponds, rivers, oceans, soils, etc.
Feed on bacteria, algae and detritus
Nuclear dimorphism (two morphologically and functionally different types of nuclei)
One nuclei is polypoid, one is diploid
Very fast contractile organelles
Have contractile vacuoles that collect and expel excess water
Usually, but not always (eg Suctoria), covered with cilia
A special kind of cytoskeleton that provides a scaffolding for the cilia and determines the form of the body
Usually large -- 100 to 10000 x volume of typical unicells
"Phylum Ciliophora"
"Paramecium pentaurelia"
Two nuclei
Contractile vacuole
Covered with cilia
Special cytoskeleton (Infraciliature)
"Phylum Sporozoa"
Live at the expense of another organism
Form reproductive cells known as spores
Many are parasitic and pathogenic species
Constantly change their antigens in order to invade
The asexual reproduction phase requires multiple nuclear fissions
The sexual phase involves the generation of spores and is followed by the production of gamonts
All sporozoans have a cellular structure known as apical complex
Cellular organization consists of the apical complex, micropore, longitudinal microtubular cytoskeleton, and cortical alveoli
The apical complex enables sporozoans to invade the host cells
T. Gondii
"Toxoplasma gondii"
Parasitic sporozoan that causes the disease toxoplasmosis in many warm-blooded mammals
Has an apical complex
"Phylum Sarcodina"
Have streaming cytoplasm and use temporary cytoplasmic extensions (pseudopodia) in locomotion/ feeding
The cytoplasm may contain more than one nucleus
Include the genus Amoeba and pathogenic species
Cells may be spherical or irregular in shape; the envelope is usually thin and flexible
Sometimes there is an external shell or skeleton
Food, which adheres to the body surface or is trapped by pseudopodia, is digested in food vacuoles
"Amoeba proteus"
Have streaming cytoplasm and use temporary cytoplasmic extensions
Two nuclei
Food is trapped by pseudopodia and is digested in food vacuoles
Kingdom Eubacteria
"Flowering Plant"
"Naked-seed Plant"
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