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Sexual Assault and Human Trafficking Presentation 3/16/15-Amy Maggard

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Stand Up Placer

on 4 April 2016

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Transcript of Sexual Assault and Human Trafficking Presentation 3/16/15-Amy Maggard

24 Hour Crisis Line 1.800.575.5352
Substance Abuse
Domestic violence and drug and alcohol
addiction frequently occur together, but
no evidence
suggests a
causal
relationship between substance abuse and domestic violence.
61% of domestic violence offenders have substance abuse problems
Women who have been abused are
15 times
more likely to abuse alcohol and
9 times
more likely to abuse drugs than
women who have not been abused.
Alcoholism treatment does not
cure
abusive behavior.
Many abusers
force
victims to use substances in order to gain
power

in the relationship.
Many victims
stay
in a relationship longer because of the
fear
associated with their substance abuse
24 Hour
Crisis Line
1.800.575.5352
Stand Up Placer Emergency Services
Supportive Services
Transitional Housing
Legal Advocacy
Therapy
Support Groups,
Classes,
Basic Needs &
Children's Programs
Crisis Intervention,
Community Advocacy &
Safety Planning
School Based Programs
Professional Groups
Speakers Bureau
Prevention
Want to get more involved?
I-5/I-80 Intersection
is one of the
top 5 areas for
Human Trafficking
Asking for it?
Abuse can take several different forms...
Women
Children
They
must
be a survivor of sexual and/or domestic (
intimate partner
) violence.

The Good News?
Sexual
Emotional
Psychological
Stalking
Financial
Spiritual
Legal
Victims of violence, may experience...
Violence can be learned
How to better help/serve victims and survivors of abuse
Girls aged 16-19 are 4 times more likely than the general population to be victims of rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault.
Of men that have been raped, more than 25% experienced their first rape at or before the age of 10.
Rape or sexual assault can
happen
to
anyone
and it’s
never
the survivor's fault.




Physical
Verbal
24 people per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the
United States.
1 out of every 5 American women and 1 out of 33 men have been the victim of an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime.
Every 2 minutes, another American is sexually assaulted.
There is an average of 237,868 survivors (age 12 and older) of rape and sexual assault each year.
Date Rape
Acquaintance Rape
Stranger Rape
Types of Sexual Assault
Survival Sex/Prostitution
Sex Trafficking
Child Pornography
Cat Calls
Voyeurism & Flashing
Sharing (even texting) nude photos
Intimate Partner Rape
Statutory Rape
Incest
Sodomy
Unwanted Groping/Touching
Forced Oral Copulation
66%
of assaults are committed by someone known to the survivor.
Sexual Assault is
any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without the explicit consent of the recipient.

Domestic Violence
Tension Building
Explosion/
Incident
Respite/
Reconciliation
(Honeymoon Period)
Cycle of Violence
1 in 4 women will experience domestic violence during her lifetime.

Every year, 1 in 3 women who are victims of homicide are murdered by their current or former partners.
Every year, approximately 15.5 million children are exposed to domestic violence in their homes. These children are 1500% more likely to be physically abused or seriously neglected.
Accuse you of cheating and being disloyal?
Make you feel worthless?
Hurt you by hitting, choking or kicking you?
Pressure or force you into unwanted sex?
Intimidate and threaten to hurt you or someone you love?
Try to control what you do, who you see, where you go, what you watch or what you wear?
Control your access to money?
Stalk you, including calling you constantly or following you?
Threaten to hurt themselves if they don't get what they want?
Isolate you?
Domestic Violence
Does your significant other...
Safe Party Arrangements
Make a safety plan before you go out
Stick with your friends
Use the buddy system
Cell phone charged
Coordinate a ride home beforehand and always have a back-up plan
Hold onto your drink
Even when using the restroom
Don't accept or share drinks with anyone
Get a new drink if yours is ever of your sight
Lastly, trust your instincts!
What is
the cost?
A recent study conducted by Drexel University shows the average cost of one felony incident of Domestic or Sexual Violence in Placer County is $500,000.00.
However, the ultimate cost of Domestic and Sexual Violence is measured by the lives affected.
Substance Abuse
Domestic violence and drug and alcohol
addiction frequently occur together, but
no evidence

suggests a
causal

relationship between substance abuse and domestic violence.
61% of domestic violence offenders have substance abuse problems.
Many abusers

force

victims to use substances in order to gain
power
in the relationship.
Substance Abuse treatment does not
cure
abusive behavior.
Women who have been abused are
15 times
more likely to abuse alcohol and
9 times
more likely to abuse drugs than women who have not been abused.
Many victims

stay
in a

relationship longer because of the

fear

associated with their substance abuse.
These issues can affect you, a person you know, or someone you may know in the future!
According to the US Department of Justice, women aged 16-24 experience the highest per capita rate of intimate partner violence.
More than 1 in 7 men will be physically abused, sexually assaulted/abused, or stalked in their lifetime by an intimate partner.



5,258 survivors and their children received services at a domestic violence agency in California.

1, 374 calls were answered by crisis lines throughout the state.

The most requested services were emergency shelter, counseling, legal services, transitional housing and court accompaniment.

1,170 requests for services went
unmet, mainly due to a lack of
resources.



On just one day in 2012...

In 2011...
Psychological

Family & Friends
Personal Safety
Why does the Survivor stay?
Financial Pressures
Children

"All acts involved in the recruitment, abduction, transport, harboring, transfer, sale or receipt of persons, within national or across international borders, through force, coercion, fraud or deception, to place persons in situations of slavery or slavery-like conditions, forced labor or services, such as forced prostitution or sexual services..."
Over 27 million people are enslaved around the world.
There are more slaves today than ever before in human history.
Each year there are 15-18 thousand people trafficked INTO the United States.

However, 85% of confirmed Human Trafficking Survivors in the United States are US citizens.
Las Vegas
Los Angeles
Sacramento
Local Trafficking Triangle
Highest levels of Human Trafficking by state:
The most prevalent forms of sex trafficking in our region are:

Commercial front brothels- massage parlors
Controlled prostitution
Escort services- Craigslist, Facebook, Backpage
The sale of human beings is the 3rd largest illicit trade following drugs and weapons.

However, it ranks 2nd in profitability.
--> $30B Worldwide, $10B in US
Sex Trafficking can take place anywhere
Parks
Vehicles
Porn Industry
Strip Clubs
Live Sex Shows
Beauty Salons
Hotels/Casinos
Street Corners
Internet Sites
Bars and Cantinas
Sporting Events
Makeshift Brothels
Rural and urban areas
Truck Stops/Bus Stations
Residential Neighborhoods
Placer County law enforcement received 820 domestic violence-related calls for assistance, 165 of which involved a weapon.




50% of victims are children
80% of victims are female

The average age of sex trafficking victims:

12-14
11-13
Who is most at risk in the United States
History of sexual and/or physical abuse
Homeless Population
Youth in foster care and youth aging out of the foster care system
Persons isolated from their families and social networks
Underage Runaways
Basic Needs
Trauma
Bonding- May not identify as a victim
Force
or Coercion
Drug Dependencies
Why
not attemptescape?
What can you do?

Watch for indicators of abuse
Look for elements of fear & control


Why does this affect you?
21% of college students report having experienced dating violence by a current partner.
Over 13% of college women report that they have been stalked.

Nearly 1/3 of college students report having physically assaulted a dating partner in the last 12 months.
Societal Attitudes:
How far have we come?
Common emotions and behaviors experienced after a sexual assault...
Research indicates that males exposed to domestic violence as children are more likely to engage in domestic violence as adults; similarly, females are more likely to be victims.
Sexual Assault In College
As many as 1/4 of female students experience sexual assault over the course of their college career.
Approximately 90% of victims of sexual assault on college campuses know their attacker.
69% of acquaintance rapes on college campuses occur in casual or steady dating relationships.
13% of college women report they were forced to have sex by a dating partner.
There is a lack of protest or resistance from your partner
Your partner said "yes" originally, but then changed their mind
You are dating or married to the person
You paid for dinner
You think that your partner/date "owes" you
You or your partner are incapacitated by drugs or alcohol
You believe that your partner "wanted it"
Your partner was silent (did not say, "no")
You or your partner do not remember the assault
Your partner was asleep or unconscious
You are good friends with your partner
The answer is “
No
” even if...
Stand Up Placer

is here to help!
Safe House
Case Management
Advocacy
Legal Advocacy
Court
Accompaniment
Court Paperwork
Safety Planning
Sexual Assault Response Team
County Hub
Hospital Advocacy
Safe House
SART Team
Community Outreach
24 hour
Crisis Line
Child Care

Adults, youth and children who have experienced dating/intimate partner violence and/or sexual assault in Placer County.
Speaker's Bureau
Fundraising &Tabling
(safehorizon.org)
(ncadv.org)
(nnedv.org)
(Brown & Bzostek, 2003)
(ncadv.org)
(ncadv.org)
(ncadv.org)
(ncadv.org)
(rems.ed.gov)
(bjs.gov)
(cdc.gov)
(nnedv.org)
(oag.ca.gov).
(rainn.org/statistics)
(ncadv.org)
(rainn.org)
(rainn.org)
(cdc.gov)
Acquaintances
Friends
Significant Others
Family Members
Neighbors
Coworkers
Trusted Professionals
(rainn.org)
(nij.gov)
(nij.gov)
(sapac.umich.edu)
(sa.sc.edu)
California enacted 'Yes Means Yes' Affirmative Consent Law (Senate Bill 967) on Sept. 28th, 2014.
(cdc.gov)
Stand up Placer will receive approximately 2480 crisis calls from 1978 different callers.
15,390 total services will be provided to 2,439 survivors of domestic violence.
644 DVERTs will be reported to
Stand Up Placer by law enforcement.



In 2014...
Sex Trafficking
(fbi.gov)
(crf.org)
(fbi.gov)
(polarisproject.org)
(fbi.gov)
(Sacramento FBI Special Agent Bills )
(oag.ca.gov)
(ccfmtc.org)
1-800-575-5352
However, never put yourself or the survivor in danger. Never intervene yourself!
Call your local FBI division- No tip is a bad tip!
(916) 481-9110
Thank you so much for your time!
Any questions?
Amy Maggard
Sexual Assault Services Coordinator
(530) 823-6224
Who do we serve?
Myth: If it were that bad, they would just leave.
History of Sexual Assault
Sexual Assault
Rape:
Acquaintance
Date
Gang
Marital
Intimate Partner
Serial
Stranger
Statutory
Sexual Harassment
Cat Calls
Voyeurism/Peeping Tom
Exhibitionist/Flasher
Obscene phone calls
Stalking
Incest
Molestation
Sex Trafficking
Child Pornography
Taking/distributing (including through text) nude photos of minors
Forced oral copulation
Unwanted touching or groping
Sodomy
Survival Sex
Prostitution
Dating Violence
Domestic Violence
Hate Crimes
Control of reproductive or sexual health
Sexually Abusive, Assaultive and Exploitive Behavior
How does Acquaintance Rape differ from Stranger Rape?
The survivor may not perceive the assault as rape or may not be ready to call it so

Survivor may have to interact with their abuser on a daily basis, which traumatizes the survivor all over again

Fear of not being believed by others

Blaming the survivor- "Only people who do certain things get raped"

However it is just as traumatic- similar levels of depression, anxiety, lack of intimacy and trust
Survivors of Acquaintance Rape
-->Tend to distrust their ability to make sound judgements because they were assaulted by someone they knew and thought they could trust.
They may feel guilty or irresponsible for not seeing the sexual assault coming.

However, no one deserves to be raped and no one can tell who is a rapist. Sexual assault is never the survivor's fault.
Domestic Violence and Intimate Partner Rape
--> Sexual assault is often used as a component of Domestic Violence to control and intimidate a partner's actions or behavior.
The abuser may try and initiate or demand sexual activity as as way of "making up" with their partner.

Other times, the survivor may submit to sex with their abusive partner because they are afraid of further violence if they refuse.

SURVIVOR
Empowering term used in lieu of "victim," in reference to a person who has been assaulted.

Emphasizes the recovery process after an assault, as opposed to confining a person's experience to their victimization.
Why Do They Stay?
Personal Safety
Fear of retaliation
Guilt
Love and hope
Children
Sex role conditioning
Isolation
Rescue role
Immigration status
Economic dependency

Personal history
Religious beliefs
Sense of duty
Flirting
Sexual Harassment
Feels good
Reciprocal
Non-threatening
Equality-based
Recipient feels in control
Wanted
Legal
Open
Raises self-esteem
Feels bad or wrong
One-sided
Threatening

Power-based

Recipient feels powerless

Unwanted
Illegal
Invasive
Lowers receiver's self-esteem
Survivors of sexual assault are:
3x more likely to suffer from depression
4x more likely to contemplate suicide
26x more likely to abuse drugs
13x more likely to abuse alcohol
6x more likely to suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Human Trafficking
1. Force
Physical violence, including rape, kidnapping, beatings, physical confinement and physical restraint.

2. Fraud
False promises regarding employment, wages, working conditions, or other matters.

3. Coercion
Threats of serious harm to oneself or family members.
Any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm.
The abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process.
In 2013, 60% of the sex trafficking youth survivors recovered in a 70-city FBI raid were youth from foster care or group homes (congress.gov).
20,000 youth age out of the foster care system each year. 1/3 of these youth are homeless within 18 months (prollow.com).
A significant amount of children who are identified as survivors of ST had previous involvement with CWS. Many were legally in the custody of the state while they were being prostituted by traffickers.
Nationally, as many as 2.4 million children run away from home each year, with 1 out of every 3 homeless teens being lured into sex trafficking within 48 hours of leaving home.
(http://ndaa.org/)
Easy ways to get active today!
1.
Start a conversation with someone about the issue.
2.
Meet with and/or write to your local, state, and federal government representatives.
3.
Give!- donate to the cause.
4.
Post a comment on social media to keep the dialogue going.
5.
Volunteer with Stand Up Placer to spread awareness and help fight the cause.
6.
Buy fair trade products! Shop conscientiously!
7.
Do not financially support trafficking organizations.
8.
Look around. Be aware. Watch for red flags. Report any suspected abuse.
9.
Organize a fundraiser and donate the proceeds.
10.
Host an awareness event to watch and discuss a recent human trafficking documentary.

Lack of resources
Shorter life expectancy
Long term psychological trauma
Lack of skills for independent living
Age faster due to stress and potential drug addiction
HIV exposure
More susceptible to cervical cancer
Increased chance of being infertile
Consequences and long term effects of sex trafficking
The demand fuels the purchase of human beings for sex. If there is a demand, people will make sure to provide a supply. The demand is so high due to our culture. We live in a culture that tolerates and promotes sexual exploitation, men who buy commercial sex, exploiters who make up the sex industry and states that are complicit in providing a safe haven for pimps and traffickers.
The Rape Trade
"The abuse that is constant in prostitution, indeed endemic to it, requires dissociation from yourself and the world to survive. You may create another self, giver her another name; she is the one who goes out and does this "work" and may defend doing it...Being subjected to constant rape, beaten to stay, prevented from looking into other options, sustaining the trauma of a war zone or a torture chamber, needing drugs to keep doing it- is this what you mean by employment?"
-Anonymous
The men who buy sex, also known as "Johns" are "normal" guys. They are regular guys in regular marriages, who hold regular jobs.

Quotes from males paying for sex around the world:

“This is the part of me that can still go hunting”
"Being with a prostitute is like having a cup of coffee, when you're done, you throw it out."
"I paid for this. You have no rights."
"I decided to only rape prostituted women so that I wouldn't get in trouble for rape, which turns me on."

Men standing up against sexual assault, the buying of people for sex and helping to change the world's view on what it means to really be a man, really make a difference in fighting to stop the demand of sex trafficking.
California
Texas
Florida
New York
Illinois
If you are being trafficked, call 1-888-373-7888 24/7
Sexual Assault is about power and control
Sexual Assault does not discriminate. It affects everyone!
2.78 million men in the U.S. are survivors of sexual assault or rape.
15% are under age 12
29% are age 12-17
44% are under age 18
80% are under age 30
Sexual Assault and Rape Survivors by age:
93% of juvenile sexual assault survivors know their attackers.
-->34.2% of attackers were family members
-->58.7% were acquaintances
-->Only 7% were strangers
Lifetime Rape/Attempted Rape For Women By Race
34.1% American Indian/Alaskan
24.4% Mixed Race
18.8% African American
17.7% Caucasian
6.8% Asian Pacific Islander
(rainn.org)
Rape Trauma Syndrome
Physical, emotional and behavioral stress reactions experienced after a sexual assault and subsequently throughout a survivor's life.
Stage 1: Crisis/Acute Reaction
Stage 2: Outward Adjustment/Denial and Suppression (Chronic)
Stage 3: Assimilation/Integration
Can occur within the initial moments after an assault or weeks later. Time in this stage varies per survivor.

Two main styles of emotions:
Expressed
Controlled
Eating
Pattern
Disturbances
Physical Reactions
Sleep
Pattern Disturbances
Emotional
Reactions
Outward Reactions
3 stages
Can last for a few months to several years.
Survivors attempt to block out the assault.
Denial,suppression and rationalization may arise due to the survivor attempting to sort out and regain control of their lives.
A survivor's feelings may surface in a number of indirect ways:
Misdirected
Anger
Self-directed
Anger
Apathy
Eating
Disorders
Mistrust
Triggering, marked by resurfacing feelings
Feelings of guilt, anger and hostility may arise and nightmares and disruption of familial and friend patterns may occur- normal for these feelings to come up long after the assault
Attempts to integrate the assault into their lives
Accepts that the assault has had an impact on them and that it may continue to affect their life
Some survivors work to create meaning from their experience
(rainn.org)
Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault

GHB
Liquid E, Liquid X
Pill that dissolves in liquid
Onset 10-20 minutes
Delusions, drowsiness, dizziness, blackouts, memory loss, seizures, vomiting, tremors, difficulty breathing, vision impairment, dream-like
Can last 1 ½
Rohypnol
Roofies, Roaches
Liquid form with no odor or color, white powder, and pill form
Tastes slightly salty
Onset 20 minutes
Blackouts, loss of muscle control, memory loss, loss of muscle control, drunk feeling
Can last 2-8 Hours
Ketamine
K, Special K
Liquid form and white powder form
Onset 5-30 minutes
Dissociation, impaired motor function, out-of-body experiences, lost sense of time & identity, convulsions, aggressive or violent behavior, slurred speech, vomiting, numbness
Can last 1-2 hours

Act like a man
Act like a lady
G
E
N
D
E
R

B
I
A
S
A History of Sexual Assault
Medieval
Ages
Pre-Wave Feminism
13th Century
18th and 19th
Century
1290
1780 BC
During the 13th century, the severity of punishment under Saxon law varied according to the type of woman raped—whether she was a virgin, a wife, a widow, a nun, or a whore.
Property theft: The Code of Hammurabi, one of the first sets of written laws, defines rape of a virgin as property damage against her father. If you were married and cheated, you were considered an adulteress and thrown in the river.
Deuteronomy 22:28-29 says if you rape a virgin, you have to give her dad 50 shekels and take her to the altar.
If a woman became pregnant as the result of a rape, she was not raped: "Without a woman's consent she could not conceive."
King Edward I of England enacted the landmark Statutes of Westminster at the end of the 13th century. Rape was redefined as a public wrong-doing, not just a private property battle.

The legislation also cut out the virgin distinction and made consent irrelevant for girls under 12, laying the basis for the modern principle of statutory rape.
1670
In a treatise on capital crime and punishment from around 1670, English judge and lawyer Sir Matthew Hale wrote,

"The husband cannot be guilty of a rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband, which she cannot retract."

A man could legally rape his wife in North Carolina until 1993.
Color of your skin: If you were a slave or a savage, you could not be raped. After abolition, the white legal establishment ignored rape against black women.

Rape to prove rape: Men in common law courts argued how much proof a woman had to give to show she wasn't lying about being raped. Some said the hymen had to be broken. Some said she had to provide evidence of semen.
19th Century
Until 1929
2012
1814
Samuel Farr's Elements of Medical Jurisprudence :
"For without an excitation of lust, or the enjoyment of pleasure in the venereal act, no conception can probably take place. So that if an absolute rape were to be perpetrated, it is not likely she would become pregnant."

Women couldn't get pregnant without an orgasm
Dr. Lawson Tait, an eminent 19th century gynecologist and medical officer who helped police with criminal investigations, was

"perfectly satisfied that no man can effect a felonious purpose on a woman in possession of her sense without her consent. You cannot thread a moving needle."

If you don't squirm a lot, it's not rape
The federal government used the "rather prim euphemism, 'indecent assault,' a phrase that seems as linguistically tortured as 'legitimate rape,' from the 17th century until 1929.

The FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting Program then referred to rape as: "the carnal knowledge of a female, forcibly and against her will."
2011
House Republicans pushed to limit taxpayer funding of abortions by excluding non-"forcible" rapes from federal abortion funding.
Republican Congressman Todd Akin:

"If it's a legitimate rape, the female body has ways to try to shut that whole thing down."
Most sexual assaults are not reported.
Only 3/100 offenders spend time behind bars.
• Shame
• Self-blame
• Community and/or family dynamics and values
• May not fully understand what happened to them. Was it rape?
• May want to/be forced to protect the perpetrator, esp. if they are a family member, significant other or close friend
• A belief that the assault is a personal matter and does not need to involve LE
• Lack of trust in the system to keep them safe from retaliation

• May be fearful...
• of being blamed
• of being the object of rumor or scorn
• of any legal repercussions
• that LE may be biased against them
• of social alienation or rejection from others
• of not being believed
Barriers to Reporting
After an assault, many survivors are worried about...
Their families knowing about the sexual assault
(71 %).
People thinking that the assault was their fault (69 %).
People outside survivors' families knowing about the sexual assault (68 %).
Commercial sex acts induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such acts has not attained 18 years of age.
Who
are
the Victims?
There is no single profile of a trafficking victim.
Men, women, or transgender persons
Adults or minors
U.S. citizens, legal permanent residents or foreign nationals
All backgrounds and socioeconomic classes
All education levels
--> Anyone under 18 who engages in CSA, even if they appear to consent.
Individuals with substance abuse or addiction issues
Undocumented Workers
The common denominator is some form of vulnerability.
Low income individuals
Who
are
the
traffickers?
Many traffickers were victims of broken families and have a history of abuse.
Born into families and neighborhoods that did not support their education, aspirations for the future and dreams outside of abusing women and/or drugs.
Studies have shown that most traffickers had absent fathers or fathers that also victimized women.
Most traffickers were surrounded by others with disconnected, unhealthy relationships. Separation of children from their parents (being raised in the foster care system) is also common.
What is the government doing to combat Human Trafficking?
Federal law enforcement prosecuted more cases than in the previous reporting period, obtained convictions of trafficking offenders and continued to strengthen training efforts.
Increased prosecutions at the state level
All states have enacted anti-trafficking laws
Greater numbers of trafficking victims and eligible family members were able to obtain long-term immigration relief through T and U visas
Prevention efforts were expanded
Government developed the
Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States, 2013-2017
.
As of 2013, the highest levels of Human Trafficking by Country:
United States
Mexico
Philippines
Thailand
Honduras
Guatemala
India
El Salvadar
(www.ovcttac.gov)

Their names being made public by the news media
(50 %).
Becoming pregnant (34 %).
Contracting sexually transmitted infections (19 %).

Contracting HIV/AIDS (10 %).
Due to these fears, the pain of sexual violation can be extremely isolating.
Who are they?
(http://ovc.ncjrs.gov/sartkit/focus/)
Domestic Violence
Physical
Psychological
Social
Health Behaviors

> 32,000 pregnancies result from rape every year
Long-term consequences:
Chronic pelvic pain
Premenstrual syndrome
Gastrointestinal disorders
Gynecological and pregnancy complications
Migraines and other frequent headaches
Back pain
Disability that prevents work
Strained relationships with family, friends and intimate partners
Less emotional support from friends and family
Less frequent contact with friends and relatives
Lower likelihood of marriage
Immediate-
Denial, fear, confusion
Anxiety, withdrawal, guilt
Nervousness, distrusting of others
PTSD symptoms
Emotional detachment
Sleep disturbances, flashbacks
Chronic-
Depression
Attempted or completed suicide
Alienation
PTSD
Engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors:
Early sexual initiation, not using protection, having multiple partners
Using harmful substances
Abusing alcohol and drugs
Unhealthy nutritional behaviors
Anorexia, bulimia, abusing diet pills, overeating
(cdc.gov)
Cycle of Abuse:
The passing of the law made California the first state to enact a new consent standard for colleges and universities, in hopes of changing the culture surrounding sexual violence.

Fear
&
Characteristics of most traffickers
Full transcript