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Rocks and Minerals

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Brenda Le

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Rocks and Minerals

Resources Prentice Hall Science Explorer Inside Earth What is a Mineral? Rocks and Minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition. Properties of Minerals Each mineral has its own specific properties that can be used to identify it. Types of Rocks Crystal Structures The repeating pattern of a mineral's particles forms a solid called a crystal.

A crystal has flat sides, called faces, that meet at sharp edges and corner
On each mineral, crystals grow in a unique arrangement of atoms to form that mineral's individual crystal structure

An example is that all halite crystals are cubic, so they have six sides that meet at right angles, which is a perfect cube.

There are also hexagonal, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, or triclinic crystal systems. Sedimentary Rocks Many sedimentary rocks form when the remains of plants, animals, or other rocks combine and are cemented together.
These types of rocks form in layers below the surface
In sedimentary rocks, there are three major groups: clastic rocks, organic rocks, and chemical rocks
Clastic rocks form when rock fragments are squeezed together (shale, sandstone)
Organic rocks form where the remains of plants and animals are deposited in thick layers (coal, limestone) Brenda Le A mineral's hardness can be used to identify the type. It can scratch softer minerals but will be scratched by harder ones. This can be determined with Mohs hardness scale
Color can be used to identify minerals with their own characteristic color (black, transparent, blue, etc.)
The streak of a mineral is the color of its powder and can provide a clue to a mineral's identity. You can observe it by rubbing it against a piece of streak plate (white, brown, colorless, etc.) Properties of Minerals Another way to identify a mineral is to check its luster. It is how a mineral reflects light from its surface (metallic, glassy, greasy, etc.) Some examples of a mineral are Magnetite, Quartz, or Sulfur. Magnetite mineral Sulfur mineral Every mineral has its own density. Density is the mass in a given space. It will remain the same in that mineral, no matter what the size Mohs hardness scale Galena mineral's metallic luster Halite crystals Rock Cycle The rock cycle is a series of processes on Earth's surface and inside the planet that slowly change rocks from one kind to another. Igneous Rocks Igneous rock forms from either magma or lava when they cool. These are both molten rock
Many igneous rocks are made of mineral crystals
The texture can be fine-grained, coarse-grained, glassy, or porphyritic. It depends on the size, shape of its mineral crystals, and how fast it cools Igneous rock Chemical rocks form when minerals that are dissolved in a solution crystallize (when crystals form) (rock salt, gypsum) Examples of Igneous rocks: basalt, dacite, obsidian, etc. Sedimentary rock Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are formed when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
They are formed deep underground
These kind of rocks can form out of igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks
Metamorphic rocks are classified by the arrangement of the grains that make up the rock A rock from shale to slate http://geology.about.com/od/rocks/ig/sedrockindex/ http://www.rocksandminerals4u.com/sedimentary_rocks.html http://geology.com/rocks/metamorphic-rocks.shtml It starts off with igneous, turns into sedimentary, forms into metamorphic, and becomes magma. After magma it turns back into igneous. When igneous rock turns into sedimentary rock, they go through a process called erosion. This is when water or wind loosen and carry away the fragments of rock. Igneous to Sedimentary Sedimentary to Metamorphic Sedimentary rocks go through heat and pressure when they turn into metamorphic rocks.

Sedimentary can become metamorphic when the large piles of sediments above the rock apply enough heat and pressure to change its structure.

All three rock types can turn into metamorphic. A rock going through erosion Metamorphic rock forming Heat and pressure http://geography.about.com/cs/physicalgeography1/a/rockcycle.htm Metamorphic to Igneous Metamorphic rocks turn into igneous rocks when it has been in volcanic activity and cools.

Igneous rocks harden from lava Lava to igneous rock
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