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Copy of Factors that affect human growth and development
Transcript of Copy of Factors that affect human growth and development
Illness and Disease
Social, cultural and emotional factors
Physical environment factors
Our genes are inherited from our parents.
Genes determine our physical growth, appearance and abilities.
Each human cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Each chromosome has over 4000 genes; these tell the body’s cells how to grow.
A person can do very little to change their physical features and growth potential.
Genes also carry information that affects growth and development throughout life. Your genes are responsible for illnesses, disabilities and diseases you develop. This is because you may be born into a family with a history of stroke or cancer and you have inherited the genes for that disorder. Whether you inherit the disorder is due to other factors too, e.g. lifestyle choices.
Your lifestyle, e.g. attitudes, behaviours and choices has an impact on your health and development.
Those among us who make healthy choices will be different in lifestyle to those who make unhealthy choices.
If you make unhealthy choices you are more likely to experience health problems.
Unhealthy lifestyle choices include smoking, substance misuse and poor diet.
Some illnesses (e.g. coughs and colds) are easily treatable and short-term.
Some illnesses are genetic and passed in our genes (e.g. haemophilia) and can affect our growth and development.
Infectious diseases (e.g. HIV) can cause permanent damage to a person’s health and can be fatal.
Degenerative conditions (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease) can affect a person’s health and development in adulthood, as well as affecting a person’s social relationships, result in emotional distress, and destroy intellectual abilities.
Culture influences the way we dress, our diet, and the type of relationships we form.
In some cultures, it is normal to eat fried foods, while others it is normal to eat fresh foods.
In some cultures, smoking cigarets is more acceptable than others.
Your health beliefs, behavior and relationships can also be influenced by the community your belong to.
Gender is whether you are biologically male or female.
Gender refers to how society expects you to behave.
In the West girls are expected to be 'feminine' (kind, caring and gentle). This leads to assumptions of women to do non-manual work, cook, clean and look after children.
Boys are expected to be 'masculine' and be boisterous and tough. This leads men to do manual work and physical exertion.
Housing provides physical shelter and protection.
This is important for physical health and development (lack of adequate heating, damp and overcrowding can lead to breathing disorders, stress and mental health problems).
Children who live in overcrowded homes are more likely to be victims of accidents.
People with low income sometimes have to choose between food and heating.
A lack of heating can lead to hypothermia.
Your home also provides a sense of emotional wellbeing and psychological security (which affects your emotional development).
Pollution is the release of high concentrations of dangerous substances (e.g. human waste or chemicals) into the environment.
Pollution can remain for many years, cause health problems for many.
Pollution can affect the sea, air, water or land.
Factories often give off smoke as pollution. But some pollution you cannot see, e.g. acid rain (which can lead to asthma).
Noise pollution occurs from human or machine-made noise (e.g. cars, aircraft etc). Chronic (long-term) exposure to noise can lead to tinnitus, increased stress levels, disturbed sleep and hearing loss.