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Parts of Speech

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by

Neil Finney

on 17 January 2014

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Transcript of Parts of Speech

Parts of Speech
Prepositions
Topic
2
Topic
3
I live in a house.

I left home at 9am.

Something came across my mind.
Concept of Space in prepositions

How do we locate an object relative to space?
The ant walked across his hand.

A bus drove across the country.
What is the communicative function?

semantic category/communicative function
a) The balloon passed over the house
b) The balloon passed over
c) The balloon went up. (postulate)
d) The balloon went over there. (landmark)
Spatial Awareness

1D, 2D, and 3D
1D - 1 Dimension
road + width
2D - 2 Dimensional
2D (underwater??)
On the ice
Through the ice
*prepositions divide up space with regions with different causal spaces
3 D - 3 Dimensional
a) The skater twirled on the pond


b) The astronaut checked his equipment in the airlock.


c) The bird flew from its nest.
at - (non directional) Amy rang at the track

at - (core meaning, denote position) I am at school.

at - (being at a specific point) The intersection of the lines is at co-ordinates 3,4 on the graph.
Location of Space
Motion Verbs
John threw the ball at Mary.

John threw the ball to Mary.
stay up
look at
jump at
Modifying Verbs
(place) John exercised inside the house


(path) John stormed inside the house
describes path
modify
Motion Verbs
at the parking lot
in
into
John drove
is in the room
walked
John
Phrasal Verbs
kick off
ran into my teacher
ask out
blow up
break in (interrupt)
break up (relationship)
Idiomatic Expressions
hold you hand up
off like a shot
in at the deepend
off the record
in the pink
Crazy English
A house can burn up as it burns down

You can fill in a form by filling it out

Why is it after dark when it is after light?
shake it up
wring it up
Scale is Relative
Prepositions can have spatial, temporal, or abstract meanings
Verbs
He ate green eggs with ham.

What did he eat?
What did he eat the green eggs with?
He ate green eggs and ham.

What did he eat the green eggs and?
Syntax is the way sentences are built around verbs
Transitive and Intransitive verbs

Max snored.
Max snored a racket

Shirley Sprained her ankle.
Shirley sprained.
direct object
Oblique object

David walked into the pub.
preposition
Object and Oblique object

He poured wine into the glass.
Professor Zeeman proved the difficult theorem in under five minutes.

• transitive verb
• intransitive verb

In 1847, Abe Lincoln gave his first speech as a member of the House of Representatives.

• transitive verb
• intransitive verb

Actor Tom Selleck turned down the role of Indiana Jones for the film Raiders of the Lost Ark.

• transitive verb
• intransitive verb

My grandmother makes a great cake.

• transitive verb
• intransitive verb

The class nominated Ella for the position.

• transitive verb
• intransitive verb

James Oglethorpe founded Georgia.

• transitive verb
• intransitive verb
Professor Zeeman proved the difficult theorem in under five minutes.

• transitive verb (correct answer)
• intransitive verb

In 1847, Abe Lincoln gave his first speech as a member of the House of Representatives.

• transitive verb (correct answer)
• intransitive verb

Actor Tom Selleck turned down the role of Indiana Jones for the film Raiders of the Lost Ark.

• transitive verb (correct answer)
• intransitive verb

My grandmother makes a great cake.

• transitive verb (correct answer)
• intransitive verb

The class nominated Ella for the position.

• transitive verb (correct answer)
• intransitive verb

James Oglethorpe founded Georgia.

• transitive verb (correct answer)
• intransitive verb
Choice of Verb

Barbara sustained an injury.
Barbara caused an injury.

Norman gave a present.
Norman received a present.
|Same subject (doer) and object (done to)
What's the difference?

Harriet appearing to Sam to be brave.
Harriet appealing to Sam to be brave.
Double meaning verbs

"Call me a taxi"
"Ok, you're a taxi"

Hanibal Lecter
"I'm having an old friend for dinner"

"We do not serve colored people"
"That's ok, I do not eat colored people"
Who did it (to who)?

He snored. (intransitive)

He kissed her. (transitive)
actor
Agent (doer of action)
English speaker's ears

Jane dined the pasta.
Boris arranged John to come.
Tony rumoured Sally would divorced.
Full transcript