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Actors/Brokers p1 F17

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by

Julie Jenkins

on 30 October 2017

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Transcript of Actors/Brokers p1 F17

Island of Hispaniola ("little Spain")
--Arawak (Taino) displaced other populations
--Who named the island "little Spain"?
Christopher Columbus
--used Arawak to mine gold
--very few left by early 16th century
Spanish settlers-- started to cultivate sugar cane
--needed labor, so imported Africans as slaves
Spanish withdrew partially, so French pirates invaded.
eventually Spain signed treaty giving France 1/3 (Saint-Dominque).
Spain kept Santo-Domingo
large sugar plantations
controlled African population (Bossale) with brutality
1/2 of enslaved population in Caribbean
Revolts in 1791:
-disagreements about rights accorded to Bassale & Affranchi
-set fire to 1500 plantations
French abolished slavery to gain support against Spanish on island
--France took over Santo-Domingo in 1795.
Toussaint declared Saint-Dominque independent in 1801
--French captured & imprisoned him.
1804-- Dessalines proclaimed independence (Haiti)
seized white-owned land
assassinated in 1806
Christophe (North)
Petrion (South)
Boyer - 1818 - 1843
united North & South
fostered mulatto elite

International community wouldn't recognize Haiti as independent nation
--French threatened take-over
--until Boyer agreed to pay the French 150 million francs in reparations (=$21 Billion).
US occupied 1915- 1934
Why??
1957- 1971- Papa Doc (Duvalier) elected president of Haiti.
---Established dictatorship- considered most repressive regime, combining political oppression and people’s fear of Voodoo.
--TonTons Mocoutes
---Appealed to black middle class for legitimacy- ended elite (mulatto) rule in Haiti

Members of former regime and upper class started to migrate to US
Papa Doc accused of pocketing aid money, so Kennedy suspended aid to the country in 1961
1971-1986 (2nd wave migration)
---Papa Doc’s son, Duvalier Jr. (Baby Doc),
---Under control, economic and political atmosphere continued to decline
---US restored aid program in 1971, because Baby Doc seemed to stop human rights violations
---But, gained wealth from fraudulent economic activities- taking proceeds from government economic ventures
---Left country vulnerable to endemic poverty and economic crisis
---Regime condemned by citizens and international community
---Baby Doc forced into exile --taking millions

--1990- Aristide (Catholic Priest) won presidential election with 67% of votes
--Presidency threatened elite b/c of populist ideology
--Ousted by coup in 1991 (by wealthy mulattos, Cedras)
- hundreds killed in coup and Aristide went into exile
--Ensuing military control to 1994 – 3,000 to 5,000 Haitians killed
Many Haitians started to migrate to US by boat (3rd wave migration)- most denied entry if caught and sent back
---US started economic sanctions (embargo) on Haiti

1994- US troops entered Haiti to restore Aristide
--1995-- Succeeded by Preval
--2000-- Aristide won election again
--wanted higher wages, higher taxation of rich, etc
--requested reparations from France
--Mulatto elite protested (in Haiti & in US)
--overthrown by Metayer (Cannibal Army, to avenge death of brother), Guy Phillipe, Chamblain
--role of US??

Actors & Brokers: NGOs & States
Humanitarian Aftershocks in Haiti

focus on role of NGOs in International Development & Humanitarian Assistance
Pull together threads of earlier discussions on neo-liberalism, gender, top-down approaches, participation & empowerment
develop a framework of understanding that emphasizes empowerment
"to envision and create a world where humanity is valued, respected, and defended"
Mark Schuller

Northern Illinois University
Anthropology
NGO Leadership & Development
Board Member of Lambi Fund of Haiti
"Why & how have good intentions failed to achieve desired outcomes but also triggered some important long-term consequences?"
but also examines the agency of various people and organizations in creating & often undermining
the conceptual underpinnings of development & aid
pathways of action
Aware that alternative interpretations and pathways for action are caught up in structural power dynamics between 'donors' & 'recipients'
..already becoming the "Republic of NGOs"
rise in prominence during 90s
seen as way
to circumvent the state
be non-political
provide basic needs & participation
Funding through:
bilateral agencies
multi-lateral agencies
private donors
vulnerability to disease, poverty, & even disaster is produced
economically
politically
historically
socially
Model of vulnerability: root causes, dynamic forces, hazardous conditions.
What are the root causes of vulnerability?
What are the dynamic forces?
What are the hazardous conditions?
Full transcript