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Cellular Respiration

pages 208-213
by

Kate Crump

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Cellular Respiration

From Glycolysis to Fermentation
Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration Overview
~Stages:
-three main stages: Glycolysis, the Kreb's cycle, and the electron transport chain (ETC).
~The role of oxygen :
-O2 is required at the end of the ETC.
-aerobic processes require oxygen, (Kreb's cycle and the ETC)
-anaerobic processes do not require
oxygen. (glycolysis)
Glycolysis
~First set of reactions in cellular respiration.
~ literally translates to "sugar breaking"
~Summary: 1 molecule of glucose is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3 carbon compound).
~the products of glycolysis are: NADH, ATP (4 molecules produced, 2 are used, net gain of 2), pyruvic acid.
Aerobic Respiration
-up to 34 ATP molecules can be produced from one molecule of glucose through AR
-Krebs Cycle
-Second stage of aerobic respiration
- occurs in three steps
-yields:
~1 ATP
~2 NADH
~1 FADH2
Krebs Cycle
-Step 1
A molecule of pyruvate releases a CO2 molecule and leaves a 2-Carbon Compound, an enzyme takes the remaining two carbon compound combines with a 4-carbon compound to form a 6-Carbon Compound.
Kreb's Cycle
Step 3
The 4-Carbon compound combines with a new 2-Carbon unit to form Pyruvate that started the cycle.
Electron Transport Chain
~
High energy electrons
from NADH and FADH2
are passed from carrier to carrier
as they move
down the ETC.
~
H2O is formed when O2 accepts the electrons
in combination with the H+ ions
~
the energy that is generated
by the ETC
is used to pump H+ ions across the membrane
and into the inter-membrane space
~
the buildup of H+ ions causes diffusion through ATP synthase that converts ADP to ATP.
-
32 ATP
molecules are produced
Fermentation
~ In the absence of Oxygen, fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing NAD+ that helps Glycolysis to continue to supply the body with ATP
Krebs Cycle
Step 2
The
6 carbon compound releases one CO2 molecule
after another
releasing energy
each time.
This release
of energy
results in the formation of the electron carrier NADH
. The
4-Carbon compound left
over
undergoes
a series of
chemical reactions to become a 4-carbon compound
. During these reactions ATP, FADH2 and an additional NADH is produced.
Fermentation
There are two types of fermentation:
-Lactic Acid Fermentation-
~Uses pyruvic Acid and NADH to produce lactic Acid and NAD+
-Alcoholic Fermentation-
~uses pyruvic acid and NADH to produce Alcohol, CO2 and NAD+
Group Activity
~Go to google and type in the phrase "cellular respiration activity"
~the second link that comes up is titled "Cell Respiration: Introduction" click it.
~read through the prompts until you get to the quiz
~Take the self quiz and put your answers in the HW form with the date listed as 10/01/13C2
***you may work with a partner, but each needs to take the quiz separately****
Comparison to Photosynthesis
~Photosynthesis retrieves CO2 from the air, cellular respiration puts that CO2 back.
~Photosynthesis releases O2 into the air, cellular respiration uses O2 to release energy from food.
Glycolysis
Two Parts:
-1) ATP Production:
~two ATP molecules are used to start the process of glycolysis
~4ATP molecules are produced, two are used to power the cycle again.
-2) NADH production
~four High energy electrons are passed to the carrier NAD+ to product NADH
~NADH carries the electrons to the ETC

Complete the Analyzing Data on page 251.
This is located in the Share folder online
you may work with partner or on your own.
you only need one copy for the pair
Complete the Biology and Society on page 261. This will be submitted electronically through the labeled folder in the share folder
Full transcript