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Transcript of Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration Overview
-three main stages: Glycolysis, the Kreb's cycle, and the electron transport chain (ETC).
~The role of oxygen :
-O2 is required at the end of the ETC.
-aerobic processes require oxygen, (Kreb's cycle and the ETC)
-anaerobic processes do not require
~First set of reactions in cellular respiration.
~ literally translates to "sugar breaking"
~Summary: 1 molecule of glucose is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3 carbon compound).
~the products of glycolysis are: NADH, ATP (4 molecules produced, 2 are used, net gain of 2), pyruvic acid.
-up to 34 ATP molecules can be produced from one molecule of glucose through AR
-Second stage of aerobic respiration
- occurs in three steps
A molecule of pyruvate releases a CO2 molecule and leaves a 2-Carbon Compound, an enzyme takes the remaining two carbon compound combines with a 4-carbon compound to form a 6-Carbon Compound.
The 4-Carbon compound combines with a new 2-Carbon unit to form Pyruvate that started the cycle.
Electron Transport Chain
High energy electrons
from NADH and FADH2
are passed from carrier to carrier
as they move
down the ETC.
H2O is formed when O2 accepts the electrons
in combination with the H+ ions
the energy that is generated
by the ETC
is used to pump H+ ions across the membrane
and into the inter-membrane space
the buildup of H+ ions causes diffusion through ATP synthase that converts ADP to ATP.
molecules are produced
~ In the absence of Oxygen, fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing NAD+ that helps Glycolysis to continue to supply the body with ATP
6 carbon compound releases one CO2 molecule
results in the formation of the electron carrier NADH
4-Carbon compound left
a series of
chemical reactions to become a 4-carbon compound
. During these reactions ATP, FADH2 and an additional NADH is produced.
There are two types of fermentation:
-Lactic Acid Fermentation-
~Uses pyruvic Acid and NADH to produce lactic Acid and NAD+
~uses pyruvic acid and NADH to produce Alcohol, CO2 and NAD+
~Go to google and type in the phrase "cellular respiration activity"
~the second link that comes up is titled "Cell Respiration: Introduction" click it.
~read through the prompts until you get to the quiz
~Take the self quiz and put your answers in the HW form with the date listed as 10/01/13C2
***you may work with a partner, but each needs to take the quiz separately****
Comparison to Photosynthesis
~Photosynthesis retrieves CO2 from the air, cellular respiration puts that CO2 back.
~Photosynthesis releases O2 into the air, cellular respiration uses O2 to release energy from food.
-1) ATP Production:
~two ATP molecules are used to start the process of glycolysis
~4ATP molecules are produced, two are used to power the cycle again.
-2) NADH production
~four High energy electrons are passed to the carrier NAD+ to product NADH
~NADH carries the electrons to the ETC
Complete the Analyzing Data on page 251.
This is located in the Share folder online
you may work with partner or on your own.
you only need one copy for the pair
Complete the Biology and Society on page 261. This will be submitted electronically through the labeled folder in the share folder